Tarlov AR, Ware JE, Greenfield S, Nelson E, Perrin E, Zubkoff M. The Medical Outcomes Study: an application of methods for monitoring the results of medical care. JAMA
, 1989; 262
: 925–930.Google Scholar
Stewart AL, Hays RD, Ware JE Jr. The MOS short-form general health survey: reliability and validity in a patient population. Med Care
: 724–735.Google Scholar
Ware JE, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36): I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care
: 473–483.Google Scholar
Stewart A L, Sherbourne CD, Hays RD et al
. Summary and discussion of MOS measures. In: Stewart AL, Ware JE. eds. Measuring Functioning and Well-being: The Medical Outcomes Study Approach
. Durham: Duke University Press, 1992: 345–371.Google Scholar
Hays RD, Sherbourne CD, Mazel RM. User's Manual for the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Core Measures of Health-Related Quality of Life
. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1995.Google Scholar
Ware JE, Sherbourne CD, Davies AR. Developing and testing the MOS 20-item short-form health survey: a general population application. In: Stewart AL, Ware JE, eds., Measuring functioning and well-being: The Medical Outcomes Study Approach
. Durham: Duke University Press, 1992: 277–290.Google Scholar
Wachtel T, Piette J, Mor V, Stein M, Fleishman J, Carpenter C. Quality of life in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection: measurement by the Medical Outcomes Study Instrument. Ann Intern Med
: 129–137.Google Scholar
Holmes W, Bix B, Shea J. SF-20 score and item distributions in a human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive sample. Med Care
: 562–569)Google Scholar
Smith MY, Feldman J, Kelly P, DeHovitz JA, Chirgwin K, Minkoff H. Health-related quality of life of HIV-infected women: evidence for the reliability and responsiveness of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 20. Qual Life Res
: 47–55.Google Scholar
Wu AW, Rubin HR, Mathews WC, et al
. A health status questionnaire using 30 items from the Medical Outcomes Study: preliminary validation in persons with early HIV infection. Med Care
: 786–798.Google Scholar
Burgess A, Dayer M, Catalan J, Hawkins K, Gazzard B. The reliability and validity of two HIV-specific health related quality of life measures: a preliminary analysis. AIDS
: 1001–1008.Google Scholar
Wu AW, Lichter SL, Richardson W et al. Quality of life in patients receiving clarithromycin for Mycobacterium avium complex infection and AIDS. In: Eighth International Conference on AIDS/III STD World Congress, Amsterdam, 19–24 July 1992.
Scott-Lennox J, McLaughlin Miley CJ, Mauskopf JA. Impact of lamivudine and zidovudine therapy on quality of life (QOL). In: XI International Conference on AIDS, Vancouver, 7–12 July 1996.
Wu AW, Jacobson D, Grant D, Scott-Lennox J. Quality of life scores predict clinical trial attrition and mortality. Abstracts 4th Conf Retroviruses Opportun Infect
. 1997; 31
: 298.Google Scholar
Revicki DA, Wu AW, Brown R. Change in clinical status, health status and health utility outcomes in HIV-infected patients. Med Care
: AS173–AS182.Google Scholar
Revicki DA, Swartz C. Quality of life outcomes of saquinavir, zalcitabine, and combination saquinavirzalcitabine therapy for advanced HIV-infection. Abstracts 4th Conf Retroviruses Opportun Infect
. 1997; 27
: 266.Google Scholar
Cunningham WE, Bozzette SA, Hays RD, Kanouse DE, Shapiro MF. Comparison of health-related quality of life in clinical trial and nonclinical trials human immunodeficiency virus-infected cohorts. Med Care
: AS15–25.Google Scholar
Bozzette SA, Hays RD, Berry SH, Kanouse DE. A perceived health index for use in persons with advanced HIV disease: derivation, reliability, and validity. Med Care
. 1994; 32
: 716–31.Google Scholar
Bozzette SA, Hays RD, Berry S, Kanouse DE, Wu A. Derivation and properties of a brief health status assessment instrument for use in HIV disease. J AIDS
. 1995; 8
: 253–65.Google Scholar
Bozzette SA, Finkelstein DM, Spector et al
. A randomized trial of three antipneumocystis agents in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med
: 693–69.Google Scholar
Bozzette SA, Kanouse DE, Berry S, Duan N. Health status and function with zidovudine or zalcitabine as initial therapy for AIDS: a randomized controlled trial (ACTG 114). JAMA
. 1995; 273
: 295–301.Google Scholar
Bozzette SA, Kanouse DE, Duan N, Berry S, Richman D for the ACTG 116/117 Study Group. The impact of zidovudine compared to didanosine on health status and functioning in persons with advanced HIV infection and a varying duration of prior zidovudine therapy. Antiviral Chemother
: 21–32.Google Scholar
Bozzette SA, Berry SH, Duan N, Kanouse D. Measuring Patient-Centered Outcomes in ACTG 116/117: Instruments, Methods, Application, and Results. RAND, 1996
Spector SA, McKinley GF, Lalezari JP et al
. Oral ganciclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in persons with AIDS. Roche Cooperative Oral Ganciclovir Study Group. N Engl J Med
, 1996; 334
: 1491–7.Google Scholar
Karnofsky DA, Burchenal JH. The clinical evaluation of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer. In: Macleod CM, ed. Evaulation of chemotherapeutic agents.
New York; Columbia University Press, 1947.Google Scholar
Holmes WC, Bix B, Meritz M, Turner J, Hutelmyer C. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and quality of life: the potential impact of axis I psychiatric disorders in a sample of 95 HIV seropositive men. Psychosom Med
: 187–192.Google Scholar
Davidson A, Rietmeijer C, Hagglund B, Paulson A, St John M, Cohn D. Relation of social factors to health care utilization and health status assessment in HIV-infected patients. In: Eighth International Conference on AIDS, Amsterdam, July 1992.
Bertram S, Reitmeijer C, Hagglund, Cohn K, St John M, Davidson A: health status measures (HSM) in HIV infected women and men. In: Ninth International Conference on AIDS, Berlin, June 1993.
Fleishman J, Hsia DC, Hellinger FJ. Correlates of medical service utilization among people with HIV infection. Health Service Res
: 527–48.Google Scholar
Bindman AB, Keane D, Lurie N. Measuring health changes among severely ill patients. The floor phenomenon. Med Care
: 1142–1152.Google Scholar
Wu AW, Revicki DA, Jacobson D, Malitz FE. Evidence for reliability, validity and usefulness of the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV). Qual Life Res
, 1997; 6
: 479–491.Google Scholar
Wu AW, Jacobson D, Berzon R et al
. The effect of mode of administration on Medical Outcomes Study health ratings and EuroQol scores in AIDS. Qual Life Res
, 1997; 6
: 1.Google Scholar
Zander KJ, Palitzsch M, Kirchberger I et al
. HIV-infektion und gesundheitsbezogene Lebensqualität: psychometrische prüfung der deutschsprachigen version de “MOS-HIV”-fragebogens zur therapieerfolgskontrolle. (HIV infection and health related quality of life: psychometric testing of the German version of the MOS-HIV questionnaire.) AIDS-Forschung (AIFO)
: 241–249.Google Scholar
Rissi M, Marchesi S, Morelli E, Avogardi M. Quality of life in PWAs, Evaluation by the Medical Outcomes Instrument. AIDS Patient Care
: 265–268.Google Scholar
Scott-Lennox JA, Boyer JG, Ware JE, Wu AW. A psychometric validation of French, German, Italian, Dutch, and UK English translations of the MOS-HIV health status questionnaire. In press.
Wu AW, Jacobson D, Clark B, Berzon R, Scott-Lennox J. Reliability, validity and responsiveness of the MOS-HIV HRQL instrument after cultural adaptation in Europe: Results from an international clinical trial. In: Third Annual DIA Symposium on Quality of Life Evaluation, Boston, 9–10 May 1996.
Wu AW, Jacobson D, Clark B, Brookmyer R, Feinberg J. Quality of life associated with valacyclovir vs. high and low dose acyclovir for prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus in AIDS. Abstracts 4th Conf Retroviruses Opportun Infect
. 1997; 31
: 297.Google Scholar
Carretero MD, Burgess AP, Soler P, Soler M, Catalan J. Reliability and validity of an HIV-specific health related quality of life (QoL) measure for use with injecting drug users. AIDS
: 1699–1705.Google Scholar
Copfer AE, Ampel NM, Hughes TE et al
. The use of two measures of health-related quality of life in HIV-infected individuals: a cross-sectional comparison. Qual Life Res
: 281–286.Google Scholar
Ganz PA, Schag CAC, Kahn B, Petersen L. Assessing the quality of life of HIV infected persons: clinical and descriptive information from studies with the HOPES. Psychol Health
: 93–110.Google Scholar
Doob PR, Johnson KM, St Cyr J, MacFadden DK. Soft and hard measures of energy/fatigue in HIV Trials. In: XI International Conference on AIDS, Vancouver 7–12 July 1996.
Zander K, Jager H, Palitzsch M, Poppinger JV Steinbuchel N, Bullinger M. Health related quality of life (HRQL) in HIV disease: influence of symptom load, functioning, mood and coping styles. In: Ninth International Conference on AIDS, Berlin, June 1993.
Schag CA, Ganz PA, Kahn B, Petersen L. Assessing the needs and quality of life of patients with HIV infection: development of the HIV Overview of Problems-Evaluation System (HOPES). Qual Life Res
: 397–413.Google Scholar
Revicki DA, Sorensen S, Wu AW. Reliability and validity of physical and mental health summary scores from the MOS HIV health survey. Med Care in press.
The SOCA Research Group. Combination foscarnet and ganciclovir therapy vs. monotherapy for the treatment of relapsed cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with AIDS. Arch Ophthalmol, 1996; 114.
Wu AW, Coleson L, Holbrook J, Jabs DA. Measuring visual function and quality of life in CMV retinitis: development and preliminary validation of an instrument. Arch Ophthalmol
: 841–847.Google Scholar
Safrin, S, Finkelstein, DM, Feinberg, J et al
. Comparison of three regimens for treatment of mild to moderate pneumocystis carinii
pneumonia in patients with AIDS. Ann Intern Med
, 1996; 124
: 792–802.Google Scholar
Wu AW, Gray S, Brookmeyer R, Safrin S. Quality of life in a double-blind randomized trial of 3 oral regimens for mild-to-moderate pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS (ACTG 108). In XI International Conference on AIDS. 7–12 July 1996. Vancouver.
Givertz F, Revicki DA. Discriminant validity of the medical outcomes study cognitive function scale in HIV disease patients. In: International Society of Quality of Life Research, Montreal, Quebec, 14–17 October 1995.
Chaisson RE, Benson CA, Dube MP and the AIDS Clinical Trails Group Protocol 157 Study Team. Clarithromycin therapy for bacteremic Mycobacterium avium
complex disease: a randomized, double-blind, dose-ranging study in patients with AIDS. Ann Intern Med
: 905–911.Google Scholar
Jacobson JM, Greenspan JS, Spritzler J et al
. Thalidomide for the treatment of oral aphthous ulcers in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med
: 1487–1493.Google Scholar
Waters D, Danska J, Hardy K et al
. Recombinant human growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, and combination therapy in AIDS-associated wasting: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med
: 865–872.Google Scholar
Hooker M, Newberry A, Nunn A et al. Changes in quality of life (QOL) indices by treatment group for Delta trial participants beginning HIV therapy. In: XI International Conference on AIDS, Vancouver, 7–12 July 1996.
Wu AW, Rubin HR, Mathews WC, et al
. Functional status and well-being in a placebo-controlled trial of zidovudine in early AIDS-related complex. J AIDS
: 452–458.Google Scholar
Ware JE, Kosinski M, Bayliss MS et al
. Comparison of methods for the scoring and statistical analysis of the SF-36 health profile and summary measures: results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Med Care
: A5264–A5279.Google Scholar
Ware JE. SF-36 Health Survey: Manual and Interpretation Guide
. Boston: The Health Institute, New England Medical Center, 1993.Google Scholar
Ware JE, Keller SD, Gandek B, Brazier J, Sullivan M and the IQOLA Project Group. Evaluating translations of health status questionnaires: methods from the IQOLA Project. Int J Technology Assessment in Health Care
, 1995; 11
: 525–551.Google Scholar
Lamping DL. Measuring quality of life in HIV infection: validation of the SF-36 Short-Form Health Survey. In: IXth International Conference on AIDS. Berlin, June 1993.
Tsevat J, Solzan JG Kuntz KM et
al. Health values of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Relationship to mental health and physical functioning. Med Care,
: 44–57.Google Scholar
O'Keefe EA, Wood R. The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on quality of life in a multiracial South African population. Qual Life Res
: 275–80.Google Scholar
Devlin R, Messina M, Dunkle A, Cross A, Sudlovsky A. Comparative assessment of baseline quality of life in a double-blind randomized trial of d4T vs ZDV using 3 different instruments. In: 33rd ICAAC. New Orleans: October 1993.
Kaplan RM, Bush JW, Berry CC. Health status: types of validity and the index of well-being. Health Service Res
: 478.Google Scholar
Mahler DA, Weinberg DH, Wells CK, Feinstein AR. The measurement of dyspnea: Contents, interobserver agreements, and physiologic correlates of two new clinical indexes. Chest
: 730.Google Scholar
Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: a new self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Measure
: 385–401.Google Scholar
Viet CT, Ware JE Jr. The structure of psychological distress and well-being in general populations. J Consult Clin Psychol
: 730.Google Scholar
Lamping DL, Joseph L, Ryan B, Gilmore N. Psychological distress in persons affected with HIV in Montreal (French). Sante Ment Que
: 73–95.Google Scholar
von Neumann J, Morgenstern O. Theory of games and economic behaviour
. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1944.Google Scholar
Torrance GW, Thomas WH, Sackett DL A utility maximization model for evaluation of health care programs. Health Service Res
: 118.Google Scholar
Gange SJ, Jacobson LP, Kass N et al. Quality of life among seropositive patients on monotherapy and combination antiretroviral therapy. Qual Life Res, in press.
Lamping DL, Abrahamowicz M, Gilmore N, et al: A randomized, controlled trial to evaluate a psychosocial intervention to improve quality of life in HIV infection. In: Ninth International Conference on AIDS, Berlin, June 1993.
Spitzer WO, Dobson AJ, Hall J et al
. Measuring the quality of life of cancer patients. A concise QL-Index for use by physicians. J Chronic Dis
: 585–597.Google Scholar
Arpinelli F, Visona G, de Carli G, Paparatti UDL, Recchia G. HIV positivity impact on quality of life in asymptomatic patients. DIA Quality of Life Symposium. Charleston, SC. 12–14 May, 1997.
Grant I, Atkinson JH, Hesselink JR et al
. Evidence for early central nervous system involvement in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections. Ann Intern Med
: 828–836.Google Scholar
Ware JE, Koskinski M, Keller SD. The 12-item short-form health survey: construction of scales and preliminary tests of reliability and validity. Med Care
: 220–233.Google Scholar
Berry SH, Bozzette SA, Hays RD, Stewart A, Kanouse DE. Measuring patient reported health status and experience in advanced HIV disease: HIV-PARSE Survey Instrument.
Santa Monica, CA. RAND, 1991.Google Scholar
Powderly WG, Kinkelstein, DM, Feinberg J, et al
. A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with clotrimazole troches for the prevention of fungal infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection, N Engl J Med
: 700–705.Google Scholar
Schambelan M, Mulligan K, Grunfeld C et al
. Recombinant human growth hormone in patients with HIV-associated wasting. A randomized, placebocontrolled trial. Serostim Study Group. Ann Intern Med
: 873–82.Google Scholar
Smereck G, Melchior L, Huba G, Andersen M. Social and Health Functioning in Substance Abusing Women with HIV. The Measurement Group, 1997.
Bozzette SA, Berry SH, Duan N, Kanouse D. Measuring Patient-centered Outcomes in the Pfizer-CCTG Trial of Azithromycin vs. Rifabutin vs. Both for the Prevention of HIV-associated Mycobacterium avium: Instruments, Methods, Application, and Results. RAND, 1996.
Brown V, Melchior L, Huba G. Level of Burden among Women with HIV. The Measurement Group. http://www.tmg-web.com
Hays RD, Shapiro MF: An overview of generic health related quality of life measures for HIV research. Qual Life Res
: 91–98.Google Scholar
Cunningham WE, Hays RD, Williams KW, et al
. Access to medical care and health-related quality of life for low income, symptomatic, HIV-infected individuals. Med Care
: 739–754.Google Scholar
Ettl M, Hays RD, Cunningham W, Shapiro MF, Beck CK. Assessing health-related quality of life in disadvantaged and very ill populations. In Spilker B, ed., Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics in Clinical Trials
, 2nd edn. New York: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1996: 595–604.Google Scholar
Hays RD, Cunningham WE, Ettl MK, Beck CK, Shapiro M. Health-related quality of life in HIV disease. Assessment
: 363–380.Google Scholar
Hays RD, Cunningham WE, Shapiro MF. Derivation of Physical and Mental Health Composite Indices in the HIV Outcomes Study. Santa Monica, CA, 1996.
Cunningham WE, Hays RD, Ettl MK, et al. The prospective effect of access to medical care on health-related quality of life outcomes in patients with symptomatic HIV disease. Med Care In press.
Shapiro M, Bozzette S, Morton S, Frankel S, Berry S. HIV cost and service utilization study: studying health care issues in a national probability sample. In: Association for Health Services Research 13th Annual Meeting, Atlanta GA, June 1996.
Lubeck DP, Fries JF: changes in quality of life among persons with HIV infection. Qual Life Res
): 359–366.Google Scholar
Cleary PD, Fowler FJ, Weissman J et al
: health-related quality of life in persons with AIDS. Med Care.
: 569–580.Google Scholar
Jette AM, Davies AR, Cleary PD et al
: The functional status questionnaire: its reliability and validity when used in primary care. J Gen Intern Med
: 143.Google Scholar
Lenderking WR, Testa MA, Katzenstein D, Hammer S. Measuring quality of life in HIV-infected asymptomatic patients: The modular approach. Qual Life Res, in press.
Testa MA, Lenderking WR, Fischer L, Revicki DA, Collier AC. Effects of combination therapy with saquinavir, zidovudine, and zalcitabine on quality of life. In: XI International Conference on AIDS, Vancouver.
Testa MA, Simonson DC. Measuring quality of life in hypertensive patients with diabetes. Postgrad Med J
: 50–58.Google Scholar
Stewart AL, Ware JE, eds. Measuring Functioning and Well-being. The Medical Outcomes Study Approach
. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1992.Google Scholar