Kosary CL, Ries LAG, Miller BA, Hankey BF, Harras A, Edwards BK, eds. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1973-1992: Tables and Graphs, National Cancer Institute.Bethesda, MD (USA): National Insitutes of Health, 1995 NIH Pub. No. 96–2789.
Muir C, Waterhouse J, Mack T, et al.eds. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents. Vol. 5. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1987; IARC Sci. Pub. No. 88.
Nomura AMY, Kolonel L. Prostate cancer: a current perspective. Epidemiol Rev 1991; 13: 200–27.
Pienta KJ, Esper PS. Risk factors for prostate cancer. Ann Int Med 1993; 118: 793–803.
Ross RK, Paganini-Hill A, Henderson BE. The etiology of prostate cancer: what does the epidemiology suggest? Prostate 1983; 4: 333–44.
Wilding G. The importance of steroid hormones in prostate cancer. Cancer Surv 1992; 14: 113–30.
Geller J. Basis for hormonal management of advanced prostate cancer. Cancer 1993; 71: 1039–45.
Henderson BE, Ross RK, Pike MC, Casagrande JT. Endogenous hormones as a major risk factor in human cancer. Cancer Res 1982; 42: 3232–9.
Cornoni-Huntley J, Brock DB, Ostfeld AM, Taylor JO, Wallace RB. Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. Resource Data Book. Bethesda, MD (USA): National Institutes of Health, 1986; NIH Pub. No. 86–2443.
Cornoni-Huntley J, Ostfeld AM, Taylor JO, et al.Established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly: study design and methodology. Aging 1993; 5: 27–37.
Simonsick EM, Lafferty ME, Phillips CL, et al.Risk due to inactivity in physically capable older adults. Am J Public Health 1993; 83: 1443–50.
Rosow I, Breslau N. A Guttman health scale for the aged. J Gerontol 1966; 21: 556–9.
Percy C, Van Holten V, Muir C, eds. International Classification of Diseases for Oncology,
Second Edition. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1990.
Breslow N, Day N. Statistical Methods in Cancer Research. Volume II.The Design and Analysis of Cohort Studies.Lyon, France: International Agency for Cancer Research, 1987; IARC Sci. Pub. No. 82.
Frome EL. The analysis of rates using Poisson regression models. Biometrics 1983; 39: 665–74.
West DW, Slattery ML, Robison LM, French TK, Mahoney AW. Adult dietary intake and prostate cancer risk in Utah: a case-control study with special emphasis on aggressive tumors. Cancer Causes Control 1991; 2: 85–94.
Schwartz D, Flamant R, Lellouch J, Denoix PF. Results of a French survey on the role of tobacco, particularly inhalation, in different cancer sites. JNCI 1961; 26: 1085–108.
Wynder EL, Mabuchi K, Whitmore WF Jr. Epidemiology of cancer of the prostate. Cancer 1971; 28: 344–60.
Williams RR, Horm JW. Association of cancer sites with tobacco and alcohol consumption and socioeconomic status of patients: Interview study from the Third National Cancer Survey. JNCI 1977; 58: 525–47.
Schuman LM, Mandel J, Blackard C, Bauer H, Scarlett J, McHugh R. Epidemiologic study of prostatic cancer: Preliminary report. Cancer Treatment Rep 1977; 61: 181–6.
Niijima T, Koiso K. Incidence of prostatic cancer in Japan and Asia. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1980; 55(Suppl): 17–21.
Mishina T, Watanabe H, Araki H, Nakao M. Epidemiological study of prostatic cancer by matched-pair analysis. Prostate 1985; 6: 423–36.
Ross RK, Shimizu H, Paganini-Hill A, Honda G, Henderson BE. Case-control studies of prostate cancer in blacks and whites in Southern California. JNCI 1987; 78: 869–74.
Checkoway H, DiFerdinando G, Hulka BS, Mickey DD. Medical, life-style, and occupational risk factors for prostate cancer. Prostate 1987; 10: 79–88.
Yu H, Harris RE, Wynder EL. Case-control study of prostate cancer and socioeconomic factors. Prostate 1988; 13: 317–25.
Honda GD, Bernstein L, Ross RK, Greenland S, Gerkins V, Henderson BE. Vasectomy, cigarette smoking, and age at first sexual intercourse as risk factors for prostate cancer in middle-aged men. Br J Cancer 1988; 57: 326–31.
Newell GR, Fueger JJ, Spitz MR, Babaian RJ. A case-control study of prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1989; 130: 395–8.
Slattery ML, Schumacher MC, West DW, Robison LM, French TK. Food-consumption trends between adolescent and adult years and subsequent risk of prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 52: 752–7.
Fincham SM, Hill GB, Hanson J, Wijayasinghe C. Epidemiology of prostatic cancer: A case-control study. Prostate 1990; 17: 189–206.
La Vecchia C, Negri E, D'Avanzo B, Franceschi S, Boyle P. Dairy products and the risk of prostatic cancer. Oncology 1991; 48: 406–10.
Talamini R, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C, Guarneri S, Negri E. Smoking habits and prostate cancer: a case-control study in northern Italy. Prev Med 1993; 22: 400–8.
Hammond EC. Smoking in relation to the death rates of one million men and women. NCI Monogr 1966; 19: 127–204.
Doll R, Peto R. Mortality in relation to smoking: 20 years' observation on male British doctors. Br Med J 1976; 2: 1525–36.
Hirayama T. Epidemiology of prostate cancer with special reference to the role of diet. NCI Monogr 1979; 53: 149–55.
Carstensen JM, Pershagen G, Eklund G. Mortality in relation to cigarette and pipe smoking: 16 years' observation of 25000 Swedish men. J Epidemiol Community Health 1987; 41: 166–72.
Hsing AW, McLaughlin JK, Schuman LM, et al.Diet, tobacco use, and fatal prostate cancer: Results from the Lutheran Brotherhood Cohort Study. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 6836–40.
Hsing AW, McLaughlin JK, Hrubec Z, Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF Jr. Tobacco use and prostate cancer: 26-year follow-up of US veterans. Am J Epidemiol 1991; 133: 437–41.
Coughlin SS, Neaton JD, Sengupta A. Cigarette smoking as a predictor of death from prostate cancer in 348,874 men screened for Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 143: 1002–6.
Whittemore AS, Paffenbarger RS Jr, Anderson K, Lee JE. Early precursors of site-specific cancers in college men and women. JNCI 1985; 74: 43–51.
Thompson MM, Garland C, Barrett-Connor E, Khaw KT, Friedlander NJ, Wingard DL. Heart disease risk factors, diabetes, and prostatic cancer in an adult community. Am J Epidemiol 1989; 129: 511–7.
Severson RK, Nomura AM, Grove JS, Stemmermann GN. A prospective study of demographics, diet, and prostate cancer among men of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii. Cancer Res 1989; 49: 1857–60.
Mills PK, Beeson WL, Phillips RL, Fraser GE. Cohort study of diet, lifestyle, and prostate cancer in Adventist men. Cancer 1989; 64: 598–604.
Le Marchand L, Kolonel LN, Wilkens LR, Myers BC, Hirohata T. Animal fat consumption and prostate cancer: A prospective study in Hawaii. Epidemiology 1994; 5: 276–82.
Hiatt RA, Armstrong MA, Klatsky AL, Sidney S. Alcohol consumption, smoking and other risk factors and prostate cancer in a large health plan cohort in California (United States). Cancer Causes Control 1994; 5: 66–72.
Kolonel LN, Yoshizawa CN, Hankin JH. Diet and prostatic cancer: A case-control study in Hawaii. Am J Epidemiol 1988; 127: 999–1012.
Zumoff B, Levin J, Strain GW, et al.Abnormal levels of plasma hormones in men with prostate cancer: evidence toward a 'two-disease theory.' Prostate 1982; 3: 579–88.
Dai WS, Gutai JP, Kuller LH, Cauley JA for the MRFIT Research Group. Cigarette smoking and serum sex hormones in men. Am J Epidemiol 1988; 128: 796–805.
Barrett-Conner E, Khaw KT. Cigarette smoking and increased endogenous estrogen levels in men. Am J Epidemiol 1987; 126: 187–92.
Hautanen A, Adlercreutz H. Hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidaemia, and exaggerated adrenal androgen response to adrenocorticotropin in male smokers. Diabetologia 1993; 36: 1275–81.
Barrett-Conner E, Garland C, McPhillips JB, Khaw KT, Wingard DL. A prospective, population-based study of androstenedione, estrogens, and prostatic cancer. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 169–73.
Pour P. Prostatic cancer induced in MRC rats by N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine and N-nitroso-bis(2-hydroxypropyl) amine. Carcinogenesis 1983; 4: 49–55.
Talamini R, La Vecchia C, Decarli A, Negri E, Franceschi S. Nutrition, social factors and prostate cancer in a northern Italian population. Br J Cancer 1986; 53: 817–21.
Greenwald P, Damon A, Kirmss V, Polan AK. Physical and demographic features of men before developing cancer of the prostate. JNCI 1974; 53: 341–6.
Graham S, Haughey B, Marshall J, et al.Diet in the epidemiology of carcinoma of the prostate gland. JNCI 1983; 70: 687–92.
Mettlin C, Selenskas S, Natarajan N, Huben R. Beta-carotene and animal fats and their relationship to prostate cancer risk. Cancer 1989; 64: 605–12.
La Vecchia C, Negri E, Parazzini F, et al.Height and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies from Northern Italy. Int J Cancer 1990; 45: 275–9.
Le Marchand L, Kolonel LN, Yoshizawa CN. Lifetime occupational physical activity and prostate cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 1991; 133: 103–11.
Whittemore AS, Kolonel LN, Wu AH, et al.Prostate cancer in relation to diet, physical activity, and body size in Blacks, Whites, and Asians in the United States and Canada. JNCI 1995; 87: 652–61.
Lew EA, Garfinkel L. Variations in mortality by weight among 750,000 men and women. J Chron Dis 1979; 32: 563–76.
Snowdon DA, Phillips RL, Choi W. Diet, obesity, and risk of fatal prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1984; 120: 244–50.
Garfinkel L. Overweight and mortality. Cancer 1986; 58: 1826–9.
Severson RK, Grove JS, Nomura AM, Stemmermann GN. Body mass and prostatic cancer: a prospective study. BMJ 1988; 297: 713–5.
Henderson BE. Summary report of the Sixth Symposium on Cancer Registries and Epidemiology in the Pacific Basin. JNCI 1990; 82: 1186–90.
Brownson RC, Chang JC, Davis JR, Smith CA. Physical activity on the job and cancer in Missouri. Am J Public Health 1991; 81: 639–42.
Dosemeci M, Hayes RB, Vetter R, et al.Occupational physical activity, socioeconomic status, and risks of 15 cancer sites in Turkey. Cancer Causes Control 1993; 4: 313–21.
Polednak AP. College athletics, body size, and cancer mortality. Cancer 1976; 38: 382–7.
Paffenbarger RS Jr, Hyde RT, Wing AL. Physical activity and incidence of cancer in diverse populations: a preliminary report. Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 45: 312–7.
Vena JE, Graham S, Zielezny M, Brasure J, Swanson MK. Occupational exercise and risk of cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 45: 318–27.
Albanes D, Blair A, Taylor PR. Physical activity and risk of cancer in the NHANES I population. Am J Public Health 1989; 79: 744–50.
Lee IM, Paffenbarger RS Jr, Hsieh C-c. Physical activity and risk of prostatic cancer among college alumni. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 135: 169–79.
Cerhan J, Chiu B, Wallace R, et al.Systolic blood pressure, physical activity and risk of breast cancer in elderly women [Abstract]. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 143: S71.
Dessypris A, Kuoppasalmi K, Adlercreutz H. Plasma cortisol, testosterone, androstenedione and luteinizing hormone (LH) in a non-competitive marathon run. J Steroid Biochem 1976; 7: 33–7.
Velardo A, Pantaleoni M, Valerio L, Barini A, Marrama P. Exp Clin Endocrinol 1991; 97: 99–101.
Aakvaag A, Sand T, Ostad PK, et al.Hormonal changes in serum in young men during prolonged physical strain. Eur J Appl Physiol 1978; 39: 283–91.
Sutton JR, Coleman MH, Casey J, et al.Androgen responses during physical exercise. Br Med J 1973; 1: 520–2.
Morville R, Pesquies PC, Guezennec CY, Serrurier BD, Guignard M. Plasma variations in testicular and andrenal androgens during prolonged physical exercise in man. Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 1979; 40: 501–10.
Wheeler GD, Wall SR, Belcastro AN, Cumming DC. Reduced serum testosterone and prolactin levels in male distance runners. JAMA 1984; 252: 514–6.
Hackney AC, Sinning WE, Bruot BC. Reproductive hormonal profiles of endurance-trained and untrained males. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1988; 20: 60–5.
Houmard JA, McCulley C, Shinebarger MH, Bruno NJ. Effects of exercise training on plasma androgens in men. Horm Metab Res 1994; 26: 291–300.