, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 205-214

Diet and the risk of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma: a population-based case-control study in Sweden and Norway

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Abstract

A population-based case-control study was conducted in two regions ofSweden and Norway to investigate the association between dietary habits andthe risk of thyroid cancer. The consumption of selected foods was reported ina self-completed food-frequency questionnaire by 246 cases withhistologically confirmed papillary (n = 209) and follicular (n = 37) thyroidcarcinoma, and 440 age- and gender-matched controls. Odds ratios (OR) andtheir 95 percent confidence interval (CI) were calculated as estimates of therelative risk using conditional logistic regression. High consumption ofbutter (OR = 1.6, CI = 1.1-2.5) and cheese (OR = 1.5, CI = 1.0-2.4) wasassociated with increased risks. Residence in areas of endemic goiter inSweden was associated with an elevated risk, especially among women (OR =2.5, CI = 1.3-4.9). High consumption of cruciferous vegetables was associatedwith increased risk only in persons who ever lived in such areas. A decreasedrisk was associated with consumption of iodized salt in northern Norway, andwith use of iodized salt during adolescence among women (OR = 0.6, CI =0.6-1.0). The results of this study suggest a role of diet and environment inthe risk of thyroid cancer.