Plant species diversity and polyploidy in islands of natural vegetation isolated in extensive cultivated lands
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Natural polyploidy is often related to a longer life span, vegetative reproduction and higher competitive ability. In this paper, we test the possibility that these characteristics may favour the survival of polyploid taxa under conditions of long-term habitat fragmentation. In islands of natural vegetation isolated in extensive vineyards located in the South of France and in a large neighbouring area of natural vegetation, plant species richness and the relative abundance of polyploid taxa were assessed according to island size, isolation and vegetation structure. High species richness was observed, with numerous species restricted to the islands, suggesting that these may constitute refugia. However, species richness was not related to island size or to degree of isolation except for the flora of the woody areas. A very positive effect of area fragmentation on plant richness was observed, which is probably attributable to relatively low species overlap among the islands. Particularly high species richness was observed in open areas, provided that these were not extensively colonized by shrubs which seem to be responsible for local extinction of many annual taxa. Polyploids, which comprised mostly perennial herbs and woody species, were predominant in all the islands and in the large reference area. In open habitats invaded by shrubby species, a higher relative frequency of polyploids was observed in islands than in the reference area. Moreover, polyploid taxa were present in a larger number of islands than the diploid taxa, which were often restricted to a single island, suggesting that, after a long period of isolation, the polyploids may still have a lower probability of extinction. Evidence was obtained from vegetation structure analysis that diploid and polyploid annual herbs were restricted to open habitats and were both eliminated by shrubby species. Conversely, the diploid perennial herbs were also significantly affected by shrub colonization whereas the polyploids were mostly present in shrubby areas. This suggests that the higher competitive ability of polyploid perennial herbs may constitute a critical factor responsible for their wider distribution over the islands. We report the implications of our findings on conservation strategies, more particularly for a Mediterranean flora.
Abbott, I. (1983) The meaning of Z in species/area regression and the study of species turnover in island biogeography. Oikos 41, 385–90.
Anonymous (1989) Version 3.7. — Groupe de Biométrie. Montpellier: Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive CNRS.
Barbault, R. (1992) Ecologie des peuplements, structure, dynamique et évolution. Paris: Masson.
Bayer, R.J. and Stebbins, G.L. (1983) Distribution of sexual and apomictic populations of Antennaria parlanii. Evolution 37, 555–61.
Bolkhovskikh, Z., Grif, V., Matrejeva, O. and Zakharyeva, T. (1969) Chromosome Numbers of Flowering Plants. Leningrad: Fedorov.
Buckley, R.C. (1981) Scale dependant equilibrium on highly heterogeneous islands: plant geography of the northern Great Barrier Reef sand cays and single islets. Aust. J. Ecol. 6, 143–7.
Case, T.J. and Cody M.L. (1983) Island Biogeography in the Sea of Cortez. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Deleuil, G. (1948) Remarques sur l'absence de thérophytes dans les associations de Rosmarinetalia. Bull. Soc. Linn. de Provence 16, 1–12.
DeWet, J.M. (1980) Origins of polyploids. In Polyploidy, Biological relevance (W.H. Lewis, ed.) pp. 3–15. New York: Plenum Press.
Dzwonko, Z. (1993) Relations between the floristic composition of isolated young woods and their proximity to ancient woodland. J. Veg. Sci. 4, 693–8.
Dzwonko, Z. and Loster, S. (1989) Distribution of vascular plant species in small woodlands on the Western Carpathian foothills. Oikos 56, 77–86.
Emberger, L. (1955) Une classification biogéographique des climats. Rec. Trav. Lab. Bot. Geol. Univ. Montpellier, Ser. Bot. 7, 3–43.
Fahmy, T.Y. (1951) Recherches caryologiques sur quelques espèces méditerranéennes. Thesis, Montpellier: University Montpellier II.
Fournier, P. (1961) Les quatres flores de France. Paris: Lechevalier.
Gadella, Th. and Kliphuis, E (1970) Chromosome studies in some flowering plants collected in the French Alps. Rev. Gén. Bot. 77, 487–97.
Goldblatt, P. (1981) Index to plant chromosome numbers 1975–1978. Monogr. Syst. Bot. 5, 1–553.
Goldblatt, P. (1984) Index to plant chromosome numbers 1979–1981. Monogr. Syst. Bot. 8, 1–447.
Goldblatt, P. (1985) Index to plant chromosome numbers 1982–1983. Monogr. Syst. Bot. 13, 1–224.
Goldblatt, P. (1988) Index to plant chromosome numbers 1984–1985. Monogr. Syst. Bot. 23, 1–264.
Goldblatt, P. and Johnson, D.E. (1990) Index to plant chromosome numbers 1986–1987. Monogr. Syst. Bot. 30, 1–243.
Goldblatt, P. and Johnson, D.E. (1991) Index to plant chromosome numbers 1988–1989. Monogr. Syst. Bot. 40, 1–238.
Grant, V. (1963) The Origin of Adaptations. New York: Columbia University Press.
Hill, M.O. (1974) Correspondence analysis: a neglected multivariate method. Appl. Stat. 23, 340–54.
Hobbs, R.J. and Mooney, H.A. (1986) Community changes following shrub invasion of grassland. Oecologia 70, 508–13.
Hodgson J.G. (1987) Why do so few plant species exploit productive habitats? An investigation into cytology, plant strategies and abundance within a local flora. Funct. Ecol. 1, 243–50.
Kelsey, R.G., Stevenson, T.T., Scholl, J.P., Watson, T.J.Jr and Shafizadeh, F. (1978) The chemical composition of the litter and soil in a community of Artemisia tridentata Subsp. vaseyana. Biochem. Syst. Evol. 6, 193–200.
Kliphuis, E. and Wieffering, J.H. (1972) Chromosome numbers of some Angiosperms from the South of France. Acta Bot. Neerl. 21, 598–604.
Labadie, J.P. (1976) I.O.P.B. chromosome number reports. Taxon 25, 631–49.
Lenthéric, C. (1989) Les villes mortes du golfe du lyon. Paris: De Bonnot, J. Press.
Levin, D.A. (1983) Polyploidy and novelty in flowering plants. Am. Nat. 122, 1–15.
Lumaret, R. (1988) Adaptative strategies and ploidy levels. Acta Oecol. Oecol. Plant. 9, 83–93.
MacArthur, R.H. and Wilson, E.O. (1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography. New York, Princeton University Press.
Maceira, N.O., Jacquard, P. and Lumaret, R. (1993) Competition between diploid and derivative autotetraploid Dactylis glomerata L. from Galicia. Implications for the establishment of novel polyploid populations. New Phytol. 124, 321–8.
Marshall, D.R. and Brown, A.D.H. (1981) The evolution of apomixis. Heredity 47, 1–15.
Masterson, J. (1994) Stomatal size in fossil plants: evidence for polyploidy in majority of angiosperms. Science 264, 421–4.
Moore, R.J. (1973) Index to plant chromosome numbers: 1967–1971. Regnum Vegetabile 90, 1–539.
Moore, R.J. (1974) Index to plant chromosome numbers: 1972. Regnum Vegetabile 91, 1–108.
Moore, R.J. (1977) Index to plant chromosome numbers: 1973–1974. Regnum Vegetabile 96, 1–256.
Muller, C.H., Muller, W.H. and Haines B.L. (1964) Volatile growth inhibitors produced by shrubs. Science 143, 471–3.
Natarajan, G. (1977) Contribution à l'étude caryosystématique des espéces de la garrigue Languedocienne. Thesis Montpellier: University of Montpellier II.
Natarajan, G. (1978) I.O.P.B. chromosome number reports. Taxon 27, 519–35.
Natarajan, G. (1979a) I.O.P.B. chromosome number reports. Taxon 28, 629.
Natarajan, G. (1979b) Etude caryosystématique de quelques monocotylédones de la garrigue Languedocienne. Nat. Monsp. Bot. 30, 7–27.
Natarajan, G. (1981) I.O.P.B. chromosome number reports. Taxon 30, 698–9.
Ouborg, N.J. (1993) Isolation, population size and extinction: the classical and metapopulation approaches applied to vascular plants along the Dutch Rhine-system. Oikos 66, 298–308.
Quinn, J.F. and Harrison, S.P. (1988) Effects of habitat fragmentation and isolation on species richness: evidence from biogeographic patterns. Oecologia 75, 132–40.
Quinn, J.F. and Hastings, A. (1987) Extinction in subdivided habitats. Cons. Biol. 1, 198–208.
Rejmànek, M. and Rosén, E. (1992) Influence of colonizing shrubs on species-area relationships in alvar plant communities. J. Veget. Sci. 3, 625–30.
Reynaud, C., Filosa D. and Verlaque R. (1993) Mediterranean chromosome number reports 2. Flora Medit. 3, 367–73.
Rice, E.L. (1979) Allelopathy: an update. Bot. Rev. 45, 15–109.
Riebesell, J.F. (1982) Arctic-alpine plants on mountain tops: agreement with island biogeographic theory. Am. Nat. 119, 657–79.
Roose, M.L. and Gottlieb, L.D. (1976) Genetic and biochemical consequences of polyploidy in Tragopogon. Evolution 30, 818–30.
Simberloff, D. and Abele, L.G. (1982) Refuge design and Island Biogeographical theory: effects of fragmentation. Am. Nat. 120, 41–50.
Sokal, R.R. and Rohlf, J. (1981) Analysis of frequencies. In Biometry, the Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research (R.R. Sokal and J. Rohlf, eds) pp. 691–778, 2nd edn. New York: Freeman and Co.
Soltis, D.E. and Soltis, P.S. (1990) Isozyme evidence for ancient polyploidy in primitive angiosperms. Syst. Bot. 15, 328–37.
Soltis, D.E. and Soltis, P.S. (1993) Molecular data and the dynamic nature of polyploidy. C.R.C. Critical Rev. Plant Sci. 12, 243–73.
Stebbins, G.L. (1971) The morphological, physiological and cytogenetic significance of polyploidy. In Chromosomal Evolution in Higher Plants (G.L. Stebbins, ed.) pp. 124–54. London: Arnold.
Stebbins, G.L. (1980) Polyploidy in plants: unsolved problems and prospects. In Polyploidy, Biological Relevance (W.H. Lewis, ed.) pp. 495–520. New York: Plenum Press.
Tal, M. (1980) Physiology of polyploids. In: Polyploidy, Biological Relevance (W.H. Lewis, ed.) pp. 61–75. New York: Plenum Press.
Tarayre, M., Thompson, J.D., Escarré, J. and Linhart, Y.B. (1995) Intra-specific variation in the inhibitory effects of Thymus vulgaris (Labiatae) monoterpenes on seed germination. Oecologia 101, 110–18.
Thompson, J.D. and Lumaret, R. (1992) The evolutionary dynamics of polyploid plants: origins, establishment and persistence. Trends Ecol. Evol. 7, 302–7.
Tutin, T.G., Heywood, V.H., Burges, N.A., Moore, D.M., Valentine, D.H., Walters, S.M. and Webb, D.A. (1964–1980), Flora Europaea. 5 vols. London: Cambridge University Press.
Urbanska, K.M. (1986) Some life history strategies and population structure in asexually reproducing plants. Bot. Helv. 95, 81–97.
van Loon J.C., Gadella Th. and Kliphuis, E. (1971). Cytological studies in some flowering plants from Southern France. Acta Bot. Neerl. 20, 157–66.
Verlaque, R. (1984) Etude biosystématique et phylogénétique des Dipsacaceae I. Rev. Gén. Bot. 91, 81–121.
Verlaque, R. and Contandriopoulos, J. (1990) Analyse des variations chromosomiques en région méditerranéenne: polyploïdie, différenciation et adaptation. Ecol. Med. 16, 93–112.
Verlaque, R. and Filosa, D. (1993) Mediterranean chromosome reports 3. Flora Medit. 3, 364–7.
Verlaque, R., Seidenbinder, M. and Danadille, P. (1987a) Recherches cytotaxonomiques sur la spéciation en région Mediterranéenne I: espèces à nombre chromosomique stable. Rev. Biol.-Ecol. médit. 10, 273–89.
Verlaque, R., Vignal, C. and Seidenbinder, M. (1987b) Recherches cytotaxonomiques sur la spéciation en région méditerranéenne II: espéces dysploïdes. Rev. Biol.-Ecol. médit. 10, 291–313.
Verlaque, R., Seidenbinder, M. and Reynaud, C. (1987c) Recherches cytotaxonomiques sur la spéciation en région méditerranéenne. III: espèces aneuploïdes. Rev. Biol.-Ecol. médit. 10, 315–46.
Verlaque, R., Reynaud, C. and Vignal, C. (1995) Mediterranean chromosome reports 5. Flora medit. 5 (in press).
Ward, J.H. (1963) Hierarchical grouping to optimize an objective function. J. Am. Stat. Ass. 58, 236–44.
Whitney, G.G. and Foster, D.R. (1988) Overstorey composition and age as determinants of the understorey flora of woods of central New England. J. Ecol. 76, 867–76.
Whittaker, R.J. (1991) Small-scale pattern: an evolution of techniques with an application to salt marsh vegetation. Vegetatio 94, 81–94.
Wiggins, I.L. and Porter, D.M. (1971) Flora of the Galapagos Island. Standford: Standford University Press.
Williams, K., Hobbs, R.J. and Hamburg, S.P. (1987) Invasion of an annual grassland in Northern California by Baccharis pilularis subsp., consanguinea. Oecologia 72, 461–5.
- Plant species diversity and polyploidy in islands of natural vegetation isolated in extensive cultivated lands
Biodiversity & Conservation
Volume 6, Issue 4 , pp 591-613
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- long-term habitat fragmentation
- species richness
- Mediterranean flora
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Population Biology, Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive Louis Emberger, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, BP 5051, 34033, Montpellier cedex, France
- 2. Laboratory of Biology, Ecology and Plant Pathology, Ecole Nationale Supe´rieure Agronomique, 34060, Montpellier cedex, France
- 3. Laboratory of Biosystematics and Mediterranean Ecology, Universite´ de Provence, Place Victor Hugo, 13331, Marseille cedex 3, France