Cytoplasmic effects on quality traits of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
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The inheritances of thousand kernel weight (TKW), protein percentage, protein quality and grain hardness were studied through an 11 x 11 complete diallel set of bread wheat genotypes consisting of four alloplasmic lines of Selkirk, two alloplasmic lines of Siete Cerros 66, and five commercial cultivars. Genetic components accounted for 93%, 90%, 78%, and 92% of total variation for TKW, protein percentage, protein quality, and grain hardness, respectively. General combining ability (GCA) effects were dominant for TKW (48% GCA, 38% SCA [specific combining ability], and 7% reciprocal effects [RE]), protein percentage (70% GCA, 10% SCA, and 10% RE), and grain hardness (59% GCA, 29% SCA, and 4% RE). However, SCA effects dominated for protein quality (30% GCA, 43% SCA, and 5% RE). Broad- and narrow-sense heritabilities were estimated at 0.95 and 0.65 for TKW, 0.94 and 0.82 for protein percentage, 0.83 and 0.47 for protein quality, and 0.95 and 0.74 for grain hardness. Reciprocal effects were highly significant for all quality traits, but less effective than additive and non-additive gene effects. Aegilops cylindrica, Ae. ventricosa, and Triticum turgidum cytoplasms showed positive effects on TKW in some crosses. Ae. cylindrica, Ae. variabilis, and Ae. uniaristata cytoplasms seemed to have potential for improving protein percentage. T. aestivum cytoplasms were superior to alien cytoplasms for protein quality. Bolal 2973, Kiraç 66 and Bezostaja 1 cytoplasms increased protein quality in some crosses. Ae. cylindrica, Ae. variabilis, Ae. ventricosa and Ae. uniaristata cytoplasms had significant effects on grain hardness. The cytoplasmic variation in B type T. aestivum cytoplasm was found to be significant for all traits.
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- Cytoplasmic effects on quality traits of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
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