Documenta Ophthalmologica

, Volume 103, Issue 1, pp 73–79

Plasma timolol concentrations of timolol maleate: timolol gel-forming solution (TIMOPTIC-XE®) once daily versus timolol maleate ophthalmic solution twice daily


  • Arthur H. Shedden
    • Merck Research Laboratories
  • Jean Laurence
    • Merck Research Laboratories
  • Andrea Barrish
    • Merck Research Laboratories
  • Timothy V. Olah
    • Merck Research Laboratories

DOI: 10.1023/A:1017962731813

Cite this article as:
Shedden, A.H., Laurence, J., Barrish, A. et al. Doc Ophthalmol (2001) 103: 73. doi:10.1023/A:1017962731813


Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare plasma concentrations of timolol following multiple dosing of the therapeutic regimens of timolol maleate ophthalmic gel-forming solution (Timolol GS; TIMOPTIC-XE®) and timolol maleate ophthalmic solution. Timolol maleate ophthalmic gel-forming solution is also referred to as Timolol GS, i.e. gel-forming solution. Methods: This was a masked observer, two-period crossover study in six normal male subjects randomized to receive either Timolol GS, 0.5% (TIMOPTIC-XE,) once daily (0530 hours) or timolol maleate ophthalmic solution (0.5% TIMOPTIC®) twice daily (0530 and 1730 hours) for 8 days, in both eyes. On Day 8, a blood sample was obtained prior to treatment, as well as 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, and 24 hours following the morning instillation. After a 7-day inter-period washout interval, subjects received the opposite treatment. Results: Timolol GS (TIMOPTIC-XE): Plasma concentrations of timolol rarely exceeded 0.375 ng/ml (the lower limit of assay quantification). For all subjects, peak plasma concentrations of timolol averaged <0.3 ng/ml within 4 hours after the last dose. The highest single observation was 0.49 ng/ml in one subject (at hour 2). Timolol solution: For all subjects, peak plasma concentrations of timolol averaged about 0.5 ng/ml and 0.3 ng/ml within 4 hours following the first and second dose, respectively, on Day 8. The highest single observation was 0.95 ng/ml in one subject (at hour 2). Conclusions: The data suggest that there is less systemic exposure to timolol following once-daily therapy with Timolol GS 0.5% compared with twice daily therapy with timolol maleate ophthalmic solution 0.5%.

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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001