Job Segregation and Gender Differences in Work-Family Spillover Among White-Collar Workers
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
We test two propositions in this paper: (1) work-family conflict varies with gender composition and hours on the job; and (2) women will experience more tension between work and family responsibilities than will men. Using a sample of white-collar workers, we measured work-family conflict with a composite scale tapping negative job-to-home spillover. Workgroup composition had no effect on men's reported work-family conflict, while work hours was positively associated with work-family conflict. For women, longer work hours and tokenism in the immediate workgroup increased perceptions of work-family conflict, but unexpectedly, the interaction of work hours and tokenism was negatively related to work-family conflict. We explored several possible arguments for this contrary finding.
- Acker, J. (1990). Hierarchies, jobs and bodies: A theory of gendered organizations. Gender and Society, 4,139-58.
- Bailyn, L. (1993). Breaking the mold: Women, men, and time in the new corporate world. New York: Free Press.
- Bailyn, L., Fletcher, J. K. & Kolb, D. (1997). Unexpected connections: Considering employees' personal lives can revitalize your business. Sloan Management Review, 38,11-19.
- Bartol, K. M. (1978). The sex structuring of organizations: A search for possible causes. Academy of Management Review, 3, 808-15.
- Bond, J. T., Galinsky, E. & Swanberg, J. (1998). National study of the changing workforce. New York: Families and Work Institute.
- Cooper, C. L., & Lewis, S. (1999). Gender and the changing nature of work. In G. N. Powell (Ed.), Handbook of gender and work (pp. 37-46). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Crosby, F. (1982). Relative deprivation and working women. New York: Oxford University Press. Fried, M. (1998). Taking time: Parental leave and corporate culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
- Greenhaus, J. H., & Parasuraman, S. (1999). Research on work, family, and gender: Current status and future directions. In G. N. Powell (Ed.), Handbook of gender and work (pp. 391-412). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Gutek, B. A. (1995). The dynamics of service: Reflections on the changing nature of customer/provider interactions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Hochschild, A. (1989). The second shift. New York: Avon.
- Jacobs, J. A. (1999). The sex segregation of occupations: Prospects for the 21st century. In G. N. Powell (Ed.), Handbook of gender and work (pp. 125-41). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Jacobs, J. A. (1989). Revolving doors: Sex segregation and women's careers. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
- Jacobs, J. A., & Gerson, K. (in press). Who are the overworked Americans? Review of Social Economy.
- Kanter, R. M. (1977). Men and women of the corporation. New York: Basic Books.
- Kingston, P. W. (1990). Illusions and ignorance about the family-responsive workplace. Journal of Family Issues, 11, 438-54.
- Kossek, E. E., Barber, A. E. & Winters, D. (1999). Using flexible schedules in the managerial world: The power of peers. Human Resource Management, 38, 33-46.
- Lerner, M. J., & Lerner, S. C. (Eds.). (1981). The justice motive in social behavior: Adapting to times of scarcity and change. New York: Plenum Press.
- Lobel, S. A. (1999). Impacts of diversity and work-life initiatives in organizations. In G. N. Powell (Ed.), Handbook of gender and work (pp. 453-74). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Maier, M. (1999). On the gendered substructure of organization: Dimensions and dilemmas of corporate masculinity. in Gary N. Powell (Ed.), Handbook of gender and work (pp. 69-93). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Marshall, J. (1984). Women managers: Travelers in a male world. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
- Maume, D. J., Jr. (1999a). Occupational segregation and the career mobility of white men and women. Social Forces, 77, 1433-59.
- Maume, D. J., Jr. (1999b). Glass ceilings and glass escalators: Occupational segregation and race and sex differences in managerial promotions. Work and Occupations, 26, 483-509.
- Ouchi, W. C. (1977). The relationship between organizational structure and organizational control. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22, 95-113.
- Parasuraman, S., & Greenhaus, J. H. (1993). Personal portrait: The lifestyle of the woman manager. In E. A. Fagenson (Ed.), Women in management: Trends, issues, and challenges in managerial diversity (pp. 186-211). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
- Perlow, L. A. (1997). Finding time: How corporations, individuals, and families can benefit from new work practices. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
- Schneer, J. A., & Reitman, F. (1994). The importance of gender in mid-career: A longitudinal study of MBAs. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 199-207.
- Schwartz, F. (1989). Management women and the new facts of life. Harvard Business Review, 67, 65-77.
- Stroh, L. K., Brett, J. M. & Reilly, A. H. (1996). Family structure, glass ceiling, and traditional explanations for the differential rate of turnover of female and male managers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49, 99-118.
- Walster, E., Walster, G. W., & Berscheid, E. (1978). Equity, Theory and Research. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
- Whyte, W. H. (1956). The Organization Man. New York: Simon and Schuster.
- Williams, C. L. (1992). The glass escalator: Hidden advantages for men in the 'female' professions. Social Problems, 39, 253-267.
- Job Segregation and Gender Differences in Work-Family Spillover Among White-Collar Workers
Journal of Family and Economic Issues
Volume 22, Issue 2 , pp 171-189
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- work-family conflict
- job segregation
- face time
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Kunz Center for the Study of Work & Family, Department of Sociology, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 210378, Cincinnati, OH, 45221-0378
- 2. Cincinnati State Technical and Community College, Sociology Department at the University of Cincinnati, USA