, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 143-155

Autoantibodies to components of the mitotic apparatus

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Abstract

Autoantibodies directed to a variety of cellular antigens and organelles are a feature of autoimmune diseases. They have proven useful in a clinical setting to establish diagnosis, estimate prognosis, follow disease progression, alter therapy, and initiate new investigations. Cellular and molecular biologists have used autoantibodies as probes to identify molecules involved in key cellular processes. One of the most interesting sets of autoantibodies are those that target antigens within the mitotic apparatus (MA). The MA includes chromosomes, spindle microtubules and centrosomes. The identification, localization, function, and clinical relevance of MA autoantigens is the focus of this review. Abbreviations: ATP – adenosine triphosphate; CENP – centromere protein; CREST – calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia; HMG – high mobility group; IB – intercellular bridge; IIF – indirect immunofluorescence; MAPs – microtubule associated proteins; NuMA – nuclear mitotic apparatus; NOR – nucleolar organizer; PBC – primary biliary cirrhosis; PM – polymyositis; Pol I, II, III – RNA polymerases; RA-rheumatoid arthritis; SLE – systemic lupus erythematosus; SS – Sjögren's syndrome; SSc – systemic sclerosis; topo – topoisomerase.