Diagnostic Analysis of Farmers' Skimming Well Technologies in the Indus Basin of Pakistan Article DOI:
Cite this article as: Saeed, M., Ashraf, M. & Bruen, M. Irrigation and Drainage Systems (2002) 16: 139. doi:10.1023/A:1016032604711 Abstract
Farmers are using skimming wells tosupplement their canal deliveries. Toensure sustainable groundwater extraction,proper design and operational guidelinesfor these skimming wells are required. Thestarting point of such guidelines is tolook at farmers' existing groundwaterextraction practices, their extent andassociated problems. For this purpose, afield survey was conducted in the IndusBasin of Pakistan. Participatory ruralappraisal identified several design andoperational problems with farmers' skimmingwells. These include; depth of well,number of strainers, horizontaldistance of strainers, priming, water quality, sand in pumped water,and reduction in well discharge withtime. To investigate these problems,diagnostic analysis was carried out. A testborehole was drilled to get water samplesalong the aquifer depth during drilling.The depth of well was then decided on thebasis of these water quality analyses. Todecide the number of strainers, a pumpingtest was conducted at test borehole toestimate the contribution of individualstrainer and then the numbers wereincreased according to the desireddischarge. Similarly, placing non-returnvalve between blind pipe and strainersolved the priming problem. Operating wellsintermittently rather than continuouslysolved the problems of water quality andreduction in well discharge. The systematicapproach adopted in the study helped thefarmers to rectify the problems.
fresh-saline aquifer groundwater extraction participatory rural appraisal shallow tubewell skimming well practices skimming tubewell References
Ahmad N. & Chaudhry G.R. 1988. Summaries of irrigated agriculture of Pakistan. Shahzad Nazir (Lahore, Pakistan) 61-B/2 Gulberg-3: 6.1–6.15.
Ayers H.D., Bennett A.G., Calver G.L., Hobbs E.H., Kennelly J.J., Khan M.H. Menzie E.L. & Pal M.S. 1985. Agriculture in Pakistan: A review of performance and prospects. A report prepared for Canadian International Development Agency, 200 Promenade Du Portage, Hull. Quebec, Canada, p. 4
Bandaragoda D.J. & Firdousi G.R. 1992. Institutional factors affecting irrigation performance in Pakistan: Research and Policy Priorities. Country paper – Pakistan no. 4, International Irrigation Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 81 p.
Hafeez A., Piracha Z.A. & Ahmed N. 1986. Multi-strainer tubewells for skimming top layer of fresh water underlain by saline aquifer. Publication no. 152, Mona Reclamation Experimental Project, Water and Power Development Authority, Bhalwal, Pakistan, 50 p.
Kahlown M.A., Raza Z.I., Abaidullah M. & Hanif M. 2000. Sulphurous Acid Generator for the treatment of brackish groundwater and reclamation of salt-affected soils. Publication no. 247, Mona Reclamation Experimental Project, Water and Power Development Authority, Bhalwal, Pakistan, 57 p.
Kemper W.D., Jahangir M. & McWhorter D.B. 1976. Skimming wells report: field studies. Publication no. 67, Mona Reclamation Experimental Project, Water and Power Development Authority, Bhalwal, Pakistan, 24 p.
Knops J.A.C. 1997. Introduction to the topic of farmers' participation in drainage (pp 1–16). Proceedings National Experts Consultation on Farmers' Participation in Drainage, 10 July, International Waterlogging and Salinity Research Institute (IWASRI), Lahore, Pakistan.
Latif M. & Mesih I. 2000. Sustainability of community tubewells: An experience of SCARPI (pp 53–64). Proceedings First National Drainage Workshop, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, Hyderabad, Pakistan August 2000.
Masood S. & Ashraf C.M. 1996. Role of farmer organizations in installation and management of community tubewells under Second SCARP Transition Project (Paper no. 6, pp 1–13). Proceedings National Seminar on Participatory Irrigation Management in Pakistan, Lahore, 11–18 August.
Masood S. & Gohar M.S. 2000. Participatory drainage and groundwater management under Punjab Private Sector Development Project (pp 29–44). National Seminar on Drainage in Pakistan, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
NESPAK-MMI. 1995. Feasibility study National Drainage Program. Volume 1: Main report. National Engineering Services of Pakistan, Lahore, Pakistan (different page numbering, 280 pp.)
Qureshi R.H. & Barrett-Lennard E.G.. 1998. Saline agriculture for irrigated land in Pakistan: A handbook. Australian Centre of International Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia, 142 p.
Rafiq M., Beg A., & Knops J.A.C. 1997. Farmers' participation in drainage (pp 503–508). Proceedings International Symposium on ‘Water for the 21st Century’. Centre of Excellence inWater Resources Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, June 17–19.
Saeed M.M., Asghar M.N. & Bruen M. 2001. Options to extract fresh groundwater lenses in the Indus basin of Pakistan. Submitted to
Journal of Hydrology.
Shah T., Hussain I. & Saeed-ur-Rehman. 2000. Irrigation management in Pakistan and India: Comparing notes on institutions and policies. Working paper 4, International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, Sri Lanka, 21 p.
Wahaj R. 2001. Farmers actions and improvements in irrigation performance below the mogha: How farmers manage water scarcity and abundance in a large scale irrigation system in south-eastern Punjab, Pakistan. Ph.D. dissertation, Irrigation andWater Engineering Group, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, 245 p.
World Bank. 1994. Pakistan irrigation and drainage: Issues and options. World Bank report no. 11884-Pak, Washington, D.C., USA, 64 p.
© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002