Antonarakis S, McKusick VA (2000) OMIM passes the 1,000-disease-gene mark. Nature Genet
Austad S (2000) Varied fates from similar states. Science
Baird PA, Andersen TW, Newcombe HB, Lowry RB (1988) Genetic disorders in children and young adults: a population study. Am J Hum Genet
Blackmore S. (1999) The Meme Machine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Childs B (1999) Genetic Medicine. A Logic of Disease. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Clancy DJ, Gems D, Harshman LG, et al (2001) Extension of life-span by loss of CHICO, a Drosophila insulin receptor substrate protein. Science
Costa T, Scriver CR, Childs B (1985) The effect of Mendelian disease on human health: a measurement. Am J Med Genet
Dawkins R (1989) Memes: the new replicators. The Selfish Gene, new edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dennett DC (1997) Appraising grace. What evolutionary good is God? (Review of Burkert W. Creation of the Sacred:Tracks of Biology in Early Religions. Harvard University Press, 1996). The Sciences
Dobzhansky T (1973) Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. Am Biol Teacher
Finch CE. (1990) Longevity, Senescence, and the Genome. Chicago: TheUniversity of Chicago Press.
Frum D (2000) Not young any more. Times Literary Supplement July 14: 12.
Goldstein JL, Hobbs HH, Brown MS (2001) Familial hypercholesterolemia. In Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly W, Valle D, eds; Childs B, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, assoc. eds. The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 8th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2863–2913.
Hamilton WD (1966) The moulding of senescence by natural selection. J Theor Biol
Hamilton WD (1996) Live now, pay later. The moulding of senescence by natural selection. Narrow Roads of Gene Land. The Collected Papers of W.D. Hamilton, vol. 1. Evolution of Social Behaviour. New York: WH Freeman/Spektrum.
Hayes A, Costa T, Scriver CR, Childs B (1985) The effect of Mendelian disease on human health. II. Response to treatment. Am J Med Genet
Hodes R (2001) Molecular targeting of cancer: telomeres as targets. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
Hoeijmakers JHJ (2001) Genome maintenance mechanisms for preventing cancer. Nature
IHGSC (The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium) (2001) Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature
Jazwinski SM (1996) Longevity, genes, and aging. Science
Jimenez-Sanchez G, Childs B, Valle D (2001a) The effect of Mendelian disease in human health. In Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly W, Valle D, eds; Childs B, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, assoc. eds. The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. 8th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill, 167–174.
Jimenez-Sanchez G, Childs B, Valle D (2001b) Human disease genes. Nature
409(Feb 15): 853–855.
Jones SJM, Riddle DL, Paizyrev AT, et al (2001) Changes in gene expression associated with developmental arrest and longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genome Res
8(Aug 11): 1346–1352.
Kelner KL, Marx J (1996) Patterns of aging. Science
Kirkwood TBL (1985) Comparative and evolutionary aspects of longevity. In Finch CE, Schneider EL, eds. Handbook of the Biology of Aging, 2 edn. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Kirkwood TBL, Holliday R (1979) The evolution of ageing and longevity. Proc R Soc Lond Biol Sci
Lithgow GJ, Kirkwood TBL (1996) Mechanisms and evolution of aging. Science
Lopez AD and Murray CCJL (1998) The global burden of disease, 1990–2020. Nat Med
Martin GM (1978) Genetic syndromes in man with potential relevance to the pathobiology of aging. Birth Defects
Martin GM (1994) Genetic modulation of telomeric terminal restriction-fragment length: relevance for cloning, aging and late-life disease. Am J Hum Genet
Martin GM (2001) Genetics and aging. In Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly W, Valle D, eds; Childs B, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, assoc. eds. The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 8th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill, 215–223.
Martin GM, Austad SN, Johnson TE (1996) Genetic analysis of aging: role of oxidative damage and environmental stresses. Nature Genetics
Medawar PB (1946) Old age and natural death. Modern Quarterly
Medawar PB. (1952) An Unsolved Problem of Biology. London: HK Lewis.
Melino G (2001) The Sirens' song. Nature
Olshansky J, Carnes BA, Butler RN (2001a) If humans were built to last. Sci Am
Olshansky SJ, Carnes BA, Desesquelles A (2001b) Prospects for human longevity. Science
Scriver CR (1984) The Canadian Rutherford Lecture. An evolutionary view of disease in man. Proc R Soc Lond. B
Scriver CR (1989) The salience of Garrod's 'molecular groupings' and 'inborn factors in disease'. J Inherit Metab Dis
12(Supplement 1): 9–24.
Scriver CR (1995) American Pediatric Society Presidential Address 1995: Disease, war, and biology: Languages for Medicine — and Pediatrics. Pediatr Res
Scriver CR (2001) Garrod's insight; our hindsight. J Inher Metab Dis
Scriver CR, Treacy EP (1999) Is there treatment for 'genetic' disease? Mol Genet Metab
Slagboom PE, Droog S, Boomsma DI (1994) Genetic determination of telomere size in humans: a twin study of three age groups. Am J Hum Genet
Smith JR, Pereira-Smith OM (1996) Replicative senescence: implications for in vivo ageing and tumor suppression. Science
Sohal RS, Weindruch R (1996) Oxidative stress, caloric restriction, and aging. Science
Solter D, Gearhart J (1999) Putting stem cells to work. Science
Spillman BC, Lubitz J (2000) The effect of longevity on spending for acute and long-term care. N Engl J Med
Stearns SC (1992) The Evolution of Life Histories. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stuart RO, Bush KT, Nigam SK (2000) Changes in global gene expression patterns during development and maturation of the rat kidney. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
Tatar M, Kopelman A, Epstein D, et al (2001) A mutant Drosophila insulin receptor homolog that extends life-span and impairs neuroendocrine function. Science
Thomas ED (1999) Does bone marrow transplanation confer a normal life span? N Engl J Med
Treacy EP, Valle D, Scriver CR (2001) Treatment of genetic disease. In Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly W, Valle D, eds; Childs B, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, assoc. eds. The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. 8th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill, 175–191.
Wallace DC (1997) Mitochondrial DNA in aging and disease. Sci Am
Wallace DC, Lott MT, Brown MD, Kerstann K (2001) Mitochondria and neuro-ophthalmological diseases. In Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly W, Valle D, eds; Childs B, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, assoc. eds. The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. 8th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2425–2509.
Williams GC (1957) Pleiotrophy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence. Evolution
Wilmoth JR (1998) The future of human longevity: a demographer's perspective. Science