Cell cycle-dependent and lysine residue-specific dynamic changes of histone H4 acetylation in barley
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- Wako, T., Fukuda, M., Furushima-Shimogawara, R. et al. Plant Mol Biol (2002) 49: 643. doi:10.1023/A:1015554124675
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Histone acetylation affects chromatin conformation and regulates various cellular functions, such as transcription and cell cycle progression. Although mitosis dependent transcriptional silencing and large-scale chromatin structural changes are well established, acetylation of histone H4 during the mitosis is poorly understood in plants. Here, the dynamics of acetylation of histone H4 in defined genome regions has been examined in the fixed barley cells throughout the mitosis by three-dimensional microscopy. Patterns of strong acetylation of the two lysine residues K5 and K16 of histone H4 in the barley genomes were found to be different. In interphase nuclei, H4 acetylated at K16 was associated with the gene-rich, telomere-associated hemispheres, whereas K5 acetylation was detected in centromeric regions where the heterochromatin is distributed. Regions of strong K5 acetylation changed dynamically as the cell cycle proceeded. At prometaphase, centromeric acetylation at K5 decreased suddenly, with accompanying rapid increases of acetylation in the nucleolar organizing regions (NORs). Reverse changes occurred at telophase. On the other hand, the strongly acetylated regions of the K16 showed changes compatible with transcriptional activities and chromosome condensation throughout the cell cycle. Telomeric acetylation at K16 was detected throughout the cell cycle, although it was reduced at metaphase which corresponds to the most condensed stage of the chromosomes. It is concluded that dynamic changes in H4 acetylation occur in a lysine residue-, stage-, and region-specific manner and that they correlate with changes in the chromosome structure through the cell cycle.