Journal of Philosophical Logic

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 77-98

First online:

Measuring Inconsistency

  • Kevin KnightAffiliated withDepartment of Mathematics, University of Manchester

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


I provide a method of measuring the inconsistency of a set of sentences – from 1-consistency, corresponding to complete consistency, to 0-consistency, corresponding to the explicit presence of a contradiction. Using this notion to analyze the lottery paradox, one can see that the set of sentences capturing the paradox has a high degree of consistency (assuming, of course, a sufficiently large lottery). The measure of consistency, however, is not limited to paradoxes. I also provide results for general sets of sentences.

inconsistency paraconsistency probability η-consistency