, Volume 48, Issue 5-6, pp 529-537

Discovery and assay of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

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The least ambiguous genetic markers are those based on completely characterized DNA sequence polymorphisms. Unfortunately, assaying allele states by allele sequencing is slow and cumbersome. The most desirable type of genetic marker would be unambiguous, inexpensive to assay and would be assayable singly or in parallel with hundreds of other markers (multiplexable). In this report we sequenced alleles at 54 barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) loci, 38 of which contained single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Many of these 38 loci contained multiple polymorphisms, and a total of 112 polymorphisms were scored in five barley genotypes. The polymorphism data set was analyzed both by using the individual mutations as cladistic characters and by reducing data for each locus to haplotypes. We compared the informativeness of these two approaches by consensus tree construction and bootstrap analysis. Both approaches provided similar results. Since some of the loci sequenced contained insertion/deletion events and multiple point mutations, we thought that these multiple-mutated loci might represent old alleles that predated the divergence of barley from H. spontaneum. We evaluated sequences from a sample of H. spontaneum accessions from the Eastern Mediterranean, and observed similar alleles present in both cultivated barley and H. spontaneum, suggesting either multiple domestication events or multiple transfers of genes between barley and its wild ancestor.