Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 81–91

Some Considerations on the Reason for Bloat

  • W. Banzhaf
  • W. B. Langdon

DOI: 10.1023/A:1014548204452

Cite this article as:
Banzhaf, W. & Langdon, W.B. Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines (2002) 3: 81. doi:10.1023/A:1014548204452


A representation-less model for genetic programming is presented. The model is intended to examine the mechanisms that lead to bloat in genetic programming (GP). We discuss two hypotheses (“fitness causes bloat” and “neutral code is protective”) and perform simulations to examine the predictions deduced from these hypotheses. Our observation is that predictions from both hypotheses are realized in the simulated model.

genetic programming linear genomes effective fitness neutral variations 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Banzhaf
    • 1
  • W. B. Langdon
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceDortmund UniversityDortmundGermany
  2. 2.Computer ScienceUniversity College, LondonLondonUK