Environmental and Resource Economics

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 135–160

Estimates of the Damage Costs of Climate Change, Part II. Dynamic Estimates

  • Richard S.J. Tol

DOI: 10.1023/A:1014539414591

Cite this article as:
Tol, R.S. Environmental and Resource Economics (2002) 21: 135. doi:10.1023/A:1014539414591


Monetised estimates of the impact of climate change are derived. Impacts areexpressed as functions of climate change and `vulnerability'. Vulnerabilityis measured by a series of indicators, such as per capita income, populationabove 65, and economic structure. Impacts are estimated for nine worldregions, for the period 2000–2200, for agriculture, forestry, waterresources, energy consumption, sea level rise, ecosystems, fatal vector-borne diseases, and fatal cardiovascular and respiratory disorders.Uncertainties are large, often including sign switches. In the short term,the estimated sensitivity of a sector to climate change is found to be thecrucial parameter. In the longer term, the change in the vulnerability of thesector is often more important for the total impact. Impacts can be negativeor positive, depending on the time, region, and sector one is looking at.Negative impacts tend to dominate in the later years and in the poorerregions.

adaptation climate change impacts 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard S.J. Tol
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Marine and Climate ResearchHamburg University, Germany; Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije UnivresiteitAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Center for Integrated Study of the Human Dimensions of Global ChangeCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

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