International Ophthalmology

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 279–289

Non-invasive measurement of the concentration of melanin, xanthophyll, and hemoglobin in single fundus layers in vivo by fundus reflectometry


  • Martin Hammer
    • Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of Jena
  • Dietrich Schweitzer
    • Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of Jena
  • Eike Thamm
    • Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of Jena
  • Achim Kolb
    • Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of Jena

DOI: 10.1023/A:1014477925052

Cite this article as:
Hammer, M., Schweitzer, D., Thamm, E. et al. Int Ophthalmol (2001) 23: 279. doi:10.1023/A:1014477925052


A new model of the reflection of the human ocular fundus on the basis of the adding-doubling method, an approximate solution of the radiative transport equation, is described. This model enables the calculation of the concentration of xanthophyll in the retina, of melanin in theretinal pigment epithelium and in the choroid, and of hemoglobin in the choroid from fundus reflectance spectra. The concentration values found in 12 healthy subjects are in excellent agreement with literature data. In single cases of pathologic fundus alterations possiblebenefits to the ophthalmologic diagnostics is demonstrated.

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001