, Volume 1, Issue 3, pp 127-136

Iontophoresis: Modeling, Methodology, and Evaluation

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Abstract

Iontophoresis is a noninvasive and painless means of delivering various drugs into the body. Many drugs, in particular peptides, proteins, and hormones are given parenterally either through intravenous, subcutaneous, or intramuscular injections. Transdermal delivery using iontophoresis circumvents hepatic clearance and breakdown by the gastric juices thus allowing local high concentrations of active compounds. Local delivery of these compounds is much safer than parenteral routes since lower concentrations are necessary to reach the target sites. The present analysis focuses on previously overlooked areas including skin impedance, iontophoretic waveforms, skin modeling, optimization of delivery parameters, and their effects on iontophoretic delivery. Particular emphases are placed on modeling, methodology, and evaluations of the efficacy of iontophoresis.