Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 63–70

Macroflux® Microprojection Array Patch Technology: A New and Efficient Approach for Intracutaneous Immunization


    • Biological SciencesALZA Corporation
  • Michel Cormier
    • Biological SciencesALZA Corporation
  • Juanita Johnson
    • Biological SciencesALZA Corporation
  • Wendy A. Young
    • Transdermal Product Research and DevelopmentALZA Corporation
  • Margaret Buttery
    • Biological SciencesALZA Corporation
  • Kofi Nyam
    • Biological SciencesALZA Corporation
  • Peter E. Daddona
    • Biological SciencesALZA Corporation

DOI: 10.1023/A:1013607400040

Cite this article as:
Matriano, J.A., Cormier, M., Johnson, J. et al. Pharm Res (2002) 19: 63. doi:10.1023/A:1013607400040


Purpose. We evaluated the Macroflux® microprojection array patch technology as a novel system for intracutaneous delivery of protein antigens.

Methods. Macroflux® microprojection array systems (330-μm microprojection length, 190 microprojections/cm2, 1- and 2-cm2 area) were coated with a model protein antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), to produce a dry-film coating. After system application, microprojection penetration depth, OVA delivery, and comparative immune responses were evaluated in a hairless guinea pig model.

Results. Macroflux® microprojections penetrated into hairless guinea pig skin at an average depth of 100 μm with no projections deeper than 300 μm. Doses of 1 to 80 μg of OVA were delivered via 1- or 2-cm2 systems by varying the coating solution concentration and wearing time. Delivery rates were as high as 20 μg in 5 s. In a prime and boost dose immune response study, OVA-coated Macroflux® was most comparable to equivalent doses injected intradermally. Higher antibody titers were observed when OVA was administered with the microprojection array or intradermally at low doses (1 and 5 μg). Macroflux® administration at 1- and 5-μg doses gave immune responses up to 50-fold greater than that observed after the same subcutaneous or intramuscular dose. Dry coating an adjuvant, glucosaminyl muramyl dipeptide, with OVA on the Macroflux® resulted in augmented antibody responses.

Conclusions. Macroflux® skin patch technology provides rapid and reproducible intracutaneous administration of dry-coated antigen. The depth of skin penetration targets skin immune cells; the quantity of antigen delivered can be controlled by formulation, patch wearing time, and system size. This novel needle-free patch technology may ultimately have broad applications for a wide variety of therapeutic vaccines to improve efficacy and convenience of use.

administration routedry-film coatingimmunizationMacroflux® microprojection arrayvaccination

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002