, Volume 453-454, Issue 1, pp 441-466

Sexual dimorphism in calanoid copepods: morphology and function

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Abstract

Mate location and recognition are essentially asymmetrical processes in the reproductive biology of calanoid copepods with the active partner (the male) locating and catching the largely passive partner (the female). This behavioural asymmetry has led to the evolution of sexual dimorphism in copepods, playing many pivotal roles during the various successive phases of copulatory and post-copulatory behaviour. Sexually dimorphic appendages and structures are engaged in (1) mate recognition by the male; (2) capture of the female by the male; (3) transfer and attachment of a spermatophore to the female by the male; (4) removal of discharged spermatophore(s) by the female; and (5) fertilization and release of the eggs by the female. In many male calanoids, the antennulary chemosensory system is enhanced at the final moult and this enhancement appears to be strongly linked to their mate-locating role, i.e. detection of sex pheromones released by the female. It can be extreme in calanoids inhabiting oceanic waters, taking the form of a doubling in the number of aesthetascs on almost every segment, and is less expressed in forms residing in turbulent, neritic waters. Mate recognition is a process where chemoreception and mechanoreception presumably work in conjunction. The less elaborate male chemosensory system in the Centropagoidea is counterbalanced by females playing a more active role in generating hydromechanical cues. This is reflected in females in the shape of the posterior prosomal margin, the complexity of urosomal morphology and the size of the caudal setae. Visual mate recognition may be important in the Pontellidae, which typically show sexual dimorphism in eye design. The most distinctive sexual dimorphism is the atrophy of the mouthparts of non-feeding males, illustrating how copepod detection systems can be shifted to a new modality at the final moult. In the next phase, the male captures the female using the geniculate antennule and/or other appendages. Three types of antennulary geniculations are recognized, and their detailed morphology suggests that they have originated independently. Grasping efficiency can be enhanced by the development of supplemental hinges. The scanty data on capture mechanisms in males lacking geniculate antennules are reviewed. It is suggested that the loss of the antennulary geniculation in many non-centropagoidean calanoids has evolved in response to increasing predator pressure imposed on pairs in amplexus. Spermatophore transfer and placement are generally accomplished by the modified leg 5 of the male. In some males, leg 5 consists of both a chelate grasping leg and a spermatophore-transferring leg, whereas in others, only the latter is developed. Tufts of fine setules/spinules and/or sclerotized elements on the terminal portion of the leg are involved in the transfer and attachment of the spermatophore. The configuration of gonopores, copulatory pores and their connecting ducts in the female genital double-somite is diversified in the early calanoid offshoots such as Arietellidae and Metridinidae, whereas in more derived groups, it is constant and invariable, with paired gonopores and copulatory pores located beneath a single genital operculum. The absence of seminal receptacles in most Centropagoidea limits the female's ability to store sufficient sperm for multiple egg batches, suggesting that repeated mating is necessary for sustained egg production. Discharged spermatophores are usually removed by the female leg 5 and/or specialized elements on other legs. In Tortanus (Atortus) Ohtsuka, which has rudimentary fifth legs in the female and complex coupling devices in the male, a spermatophore supposedly remains on the female urosome, since eggs appear to be released from a ventral opening of the spermatophore. The type of sexual dimorphism is closely related to habitat and biology. Some hyperbenthic families never show multiplication of aesthetascs on the male antennule, whereas families of the open pelagic realm such as the Aetideidae always have non-feeding males exhibiting secondary multiplication of antennulary aesthetascs. The various aspects and diversity of calanoid sexual dimorphism are herein considered in an evolutionary context.