, Volume 236, Issue 2, pp 185-196

Effects of preplant inoculation of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on population growth of the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans

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Six species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomus aggregatum, G. clarum, G. etunicatum, G. intraradices, G. mosseae and G. versiforme) were evaluated, in three greenhouse experiments, for their effects on reproduction of the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, and growth of Ottawa 3 apple rootstock. Glomus mosseae increased total dry weights of nematode-inoculated and non-inoculated rootstock in all three greenhouse experiments, and G. intraradices increased dry weights in two of three greenhouse experiments. Plants inoculated with G. mosseae generally supported fewer P. penetrans per gram of root than plants inoculated with other AM fungi, but did not differ significantly from the controls in any greenhouse experiment. Colonization of roots by AM fungi was reduced by P. penetrans at initial inoculum densities greater than 250 nematodes/L soil. In field trials, preplant inoculation with either G. intraradices or G. mosseae increased rootstock growth and leaf concentrations of P, Mg, Zn and Cu in fumigated plots but not in non-fumigated plots, indicating that colonization by native AM fungi in non-fumigated plots may have been sufficient for adequate nutrient acquisition. The abundance of vesicles and arbuscules was greater in roots of plants inoculated with AM fungi before planting than in roots of non-inoculated plants, in both fumigated and non-fumigated plots. P. penetrans per gram of root and per 50 ml soil were significantly lower for G. mosseae- inoculated plants than for non-inoculated plants in fumigated soil but not in non-fumigated soil.