, Volume 46, Issue 12, pp 2716-2723

Reduction of Peptic Ulcer Disease and Helicobacter pylori Infection but Increase of Reflux Esophagitis in Western Sydney Between 1990 and 1998

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Abstract

We aimed to determine if changes in the patterns of upper gastrointestinal diseases at endoscopy have occurred over the past decade. Retrospectively, 917 consecutive patients were selected based on upper endoscopy between June 1 and August 31, in 1990 (n = 217), 1994 (n = 270), and 1998 (n = 430). Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and histological information were extracted from the medical records on a standardized case record form. Over the eight-year period, follow-up of peptic ulcer (15%, 5%, and 5%, respectively, in 1990, 1994, and 1998, df = 2, P < 0.001), bleeding (22%, 14%, and 13%, P = 0.008), and nausea/vomiting (15%, 16%, and 10%, df = 2, P = 0.003) had become less frequent, but reflux (21%, 19%, and 34%, df = 2, P < 0.001) and dyspepsia (24%, 43%, and 32%, df = 2, P < 0.001) more frequent indications for upper endoscopy. The prevalence of peptic ulcer disease decreased (22%, 15%, and 13%, df = 2, P = 0.025), but the prevalence of reflux esophagitis increased significantly (29%, 30%, and 39%, df = 2, P = 0.010). The prevalence of both the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (18%, 20%, and 11%, respectively, in 1990, 1994, and 1998, df = 2, P = 0.004) and H. pylori infection (39% in 1994 and 30% in 1998, df = 1, P = 0.032) decreased. Overall, NSAID use was independently associated with gastric ulcers (OR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.21–4.73, χ2 = 6.31, df = 1, P = 0.012), but not esophagitis. H. pylori infection was independently associated with duodenal ulcers (OR = 4.74, 95% CI 2.30–9.77, χ2 = 17.8, df = 1, P < 0.001), histologically chronic (OR = 166.8, 95% CI 76.1–365.4, χ2 = 313.0, df = 1, P < 0.001) and active (OR = 30.1, 95% CI 17.0–53.5, χ2 = 189.7, df = 1, P < 0.001) gastritis and lymphoid aggregates (OR = 5.49, 95% CI 3.02–9.97, χ2 = 36.3, df = 1, P < 0.001). In conclusion, the prevalence of peptic ulcer disease appears to have been decreasing, whereas reflux esophagitis has been increasing over the past decade in Western Sydney. The decreased use of NSAIDs and decline of H. pylori infection have likely both contributed to the reduction of peptic ulcer disease, but the increase in reflux esophagitis remains to be fully explained.