Executive Functioning, Temporal Discounting, and Sense of Time in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
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- Barkley, R.A., Edwards, G., Laneri, M. et al. J Abnorm Child Psychol (2001) 29: 541. doi:10.1023/A:1012233310098
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Clinic-referred teens (ages 12–19) with ADHD and ODD (N = 101) were compared to community control (CC) teens, equated for age and sex, (N = 39) on a variety of psychological tasks assessing executive functioning (EF), temporal reward discounting, and time estimation and reproduction. A factor analysis reduced the EF measures to three dimensions, representing CPT Inattention, Working Memory, and CPT Inhibition. Results indicated that the ADHD group had significantly more CPT Inattention than the CC group. No differences were found for Working Memory or CPT Inhibition. The ADHD group displayed significantly greater temporal discounting of delayed hypothetical monetary rewards relative to immediate ones and manifested more impaired time reproduction, but not time estimation, than did the CC group. Main effects for level of IQ were found only on the Working Memory factor and largely did not interact with the group factor otherwise. The group differences in CPT Inattention, temporal discounting, and time reproduction were not a function of level of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder, delinquency, or anxiety–depression. Results are reasonably consistent with past research on EF and sense of time in children with ADHD and extend these findings to the adolescent age group. Problems with working memory and CPT inhibition found in prior studies of children with ADHD, however, were not evident here, perhaps owing to age-related improvements or insufficient task difficulty.