The Eye Book of Master Peter of Spain – a glimpse of diagnosis and treatment of eye disease in the Middle Ages Article DOI:
Cite this article as: Daly, W.J. & Yee, R.D. Doc Ophthalmol (2001) 103: 119. doi:10.1023/A:1012223308327 Abstract
Peter Hispanus, who became Pope John XXI, wrote a book about eye diseases and their treatment in the 13th century.
De Oculis was not a scholarly treatise about eye diseases, but a manual intended for general physicians. Nevertheless, Latin copies were made into the 16th century, indicating its influence and importance. We present the first published English translation of De Oculis, based on a synthesis of the medieval Latin manuscripts and a German translation from the 19th century. The sources of Peter's understanding of the causes and treatment of eye diseases were the more scholarly and complete treatises by Greek and Arab writers. Many of the diseases described then cannot be correlated precisely with ophthalmic disorders known to us today because of the limited understanding of anatomy, function and pathophysiology that existed. However, De Oculis provides us with a glimpse of the practice of medicine in the Middle Ages. history of medicine medieval medicine Peter Hispanus Pope John XXI thirteenth century REFERENCES
Lindberg DC. A Catalogue of Medieval and Renaissance Optical Manuscripts. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1975: 111–4.
Vatican, Bibl. Apost., MS Vat. Lat. 3211, fols. 102r–103v. 16th C.
Ogden MS, ed. The Cyrurgie of Guy de Chauliac. London: Oxford University, 1971: 437, 466, 604.
Stapper R. Papst Joannes XXI. Münster: Westfälische Vereinsdruckerei, 1898: 1–3.
DeRijk LM. On the Life of Peter of Spain, the Author of the Tractatus, called afterwards Summule Logicales. Vivarium 1970; 8: 140–2, 145–8.
Vatican, Bibl. Apost., Storia Ecclesiastica, Folio I. 1B(22).
Alonso MA. Pedro Hispano: Scientia Libri de Anima. Juan Flors: Barcelona, 1961: 498.
Guthrie D. A History of Medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1946: 72–4.
Da Rocha Pereira MH. Obras Medicas De Pedro Hispano. Coimbra: University Press, 1973: 447.
Dante Alighieri. Paradiso. Trans by Mandelbaum A. New York: Bantam, 1986: Canto XII: 134–5, p. 109.
Schroeder HJ. Disciplinary Decrees of the General Councils. London: Herder, 1937: 201–2.
Zambrini F. Volgarizzanente del Tratte della Cura degli Occlu di Pietro Spacho. Bologna: Romagnoli, 1873.
Berger AM. Die Ophthalmologie des Petrus Hispanus. München: JF Lehmann, 1899.
Berger AM, Auracher TM. Des Benvenutus Grapheus Practica Oculorum.
Beitrag zur Geschichte der Augenheilkunde
. München: J. Lindauer, 1884.
Berger AM, Der vonMichel Angelo Buonarroti eigen händig geschriebene Augentracht, München: Knorr u. Hirth, 1897.
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, MS CLM 381, f. 78v–88r, 14C; MS CLM 40, f. 111v–115r, 14C; MS CLM 438, f. 108r–118v, 14C; MS CLM 161, f. 55v–56v, 13C; MS CGM f. 61r–62v, 15C.
Vienna, Österr. Nat. Bibl, MS, f. 55r–64r. 14C.
Graz, Universitätsbibl. MS II 594, fols 96r–105r. 15 C.
Siraisi NG. Medieval and Early Renaissance Medicine. An Introduction to Knowledge and Practice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990: 86–96.
Tester J. A History of Western Astrology. Woodbridge, 1987: 180–90.
Lambrichis H. Empedocles.Birmingham: University of Alabama Press, 1976: 76–7.
Myerhoff M. The Book of the Ten Treatises on The Eye, Ascribed to Hunain Ibn Is-Haq. Cairo: Government Press, 1928: 1–54.
Archer-Hind RD. The Timaeus of Plato. London: MacMillan, 1888: 155–8.
Copleston F. A History ofMedieval Philosophy. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 1972: 210.
The Surgery of Theodoric. Trans by Campbell E and Colton J. New York: Appleton, 1955, vol. 2: 18–22.
Wood C. Benevenutus Grassus of Jerusalem, De Oculi. London: Stanford University Press, 1929: 73–5
Celsus, De Medicina. Trans by Spencer WG. Cambridge: Harvard, 1953, vol. 2: 335–7.
Wood C. Memorandum Book of a Tenth-Century Oculist. Chicago: Northwestern University, 1936: 120–4
Meyerhoff M. The Book of the Ten Treatises on the Eye, Ascribed to Hunain Ibn Is-Haq. Cairo: Government Press, 1928: 62.
Daly WJ, Brater DC. Medieval contributions to the search for truth in clinical medicine. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 2000; 43: 530–9.
Google Scholar Copyright information
© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001