Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 15, Issue 11, pp 1666–1672

In Vitro and In Situ Absorption of SDZ-RAD Using a Human Intestinal Cell Line (Caco-2) and a Single Pass Perfusion Model in Rats: Comparison with Rapamycin


  • Andrew Crowe
    • Drug Metabolism and PharmacokineticsNovartis Pharma Inc.
  • Michel Lemaire
    • Drug Metabolism and PharmacokineticsNovartis Pharma Inc.

DOI: 10.1023/A:1011940108365

Cite this article as:
Crowe, A. & Lemaire, M. Pharm Res (1998) 15: 1666. doi:10.1023/A:1011940108365


Purpose. To compare the intestinal absorption and active efflux protein susceptibility of a new immunosuppressive agent (SDZ-RAD) with that of its analog rapamycin.

Methods. Caco-2 cell monolayers were used to examine bidirectional transport of the two compounds at low micromolar concentrations. Single pass rat intestinal perfusion was also used to examine steady state permeability.

Results. Rapamycin and SDZ-RAD showed a distinct preference for transport in the basolateral to apical direction of Caco-2 monolayers as efflux was >20 times greater than apical to basolateral transport. Efflux of SDZ-RAD was completely inhibited by verapamil while efflux of rapamycin was mostly inhibited by verapamil and partially inhibited by probenecid. Passive permeability was shown to be 20 × 10−6 cm/sec for SDZ-RAD and 10 × 10−6 cm/sec for rapamycin. In situ rat studies also showed the permeability of rapamycin to be half that of SDZ-RAD with permeabilities of 12.6 × 10−6 for rapamycin and 24.8 × 10−6 cm/sec for SDZ-RAD.

Conclusions. SDZ-RAD and rapamycin are strong substrates for P-gp-like mediated efflux. Rapamycin is also partially removed from cells by a second efflux system that is not responsive to SDZ-RAD. When these efflux pumps are inhibited SDZ-RAD is likely to be absorbed across the intestine at a faster rate than rapamycin.


Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1998