Aldrich JW, Baer KP (1970) Status and speciation in the Mexican duck (Anas diazi). Wilson Bulletin, 82, 63–73.
American Ornithologists' Union (1957) Check-List of North American Birds, 5th edn. The Lord Baltimore Press, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland.
American Ornithologists' Union (1998) Check-List of North American Birds, 7th edn. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Ankney CD, Dennis DG (1988) Response to Hepp et al. Auk, 105, 807–808.
Ankney CD, Dennis DG, Wishard LN, Seeb JE (1986) Low genic variation between black ducks and mallards. Auk, 103, 701–709.
Avise JC (1994) Molecular Markers, Natural History, and Evolution. Chapman and Hall, New York.
Avise JC (2000) Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Avise JC, Ankney CD, Nelson WS (1990) Mitochondrial gene trees and the evolutionary relationship between mallard and black ducks. Evolution, 44, 1109–1119.
Avise JC, Nelson WS (1989) Molecular genetic relationships of the extinct Dusky Seaside Sparrow. Science, 243, 646–648.
Avise JC, Shapira JF, Daniel SW, Aquadro CF, Lansman RA (1983) Mitochondrial DNA differentiation during the speciation process in Peromyscus
. Molecular Biology and Evolution
Barrowclough GF, Flesness NR (1996) Species, sub-species, and races: The problem of units of management in conservation. In: Wild Mammals in Captivity: Principles and Techniques (eds. Kleiman DG, Allen ME, Thompson KV, Lumpkin S), pp. 247–254. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.
Bellrose FC (1976) Ducks, Geese and Swans of North America. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
Bevill WV Jr (1970) Effects of Supplemental Stocking and Habitat Development on Abundance of Mexican Ducks. Masters Thesis, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
Brodsky LM, Weatherhead PJ (1984) Behavioral and ecological factors contributing to American black duck-mallard hybridization. Journal of Wildlife Management, 48, 846–852.
Brodsky LM, Ankney CD, Dennis DG (1988) The influence of male dominance on social interactions in black ducks and mallards. Animal Behaviour, 36, 1371–1378.
Brust RC (1993) Results of the 1993 Mottled Duck Aerial Survey. Administrative Report, Florida Game and Fresh-water Fish Commission, Tallahassee, Florida.
Cann RL, Stoneking M, Wilson AC (1987) Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution. Nature
Cooper A, Rhymer J, James HF, Olson SL, McIntosh CE, Sorenson MD, Fleischer RC (1996) Ancient DNA and island endemics. Nature
Delacour J (1956) The Waterfowl of the World, Vol. 2. The Dabbling Ducks. Country Life, London.
D'Eon RG, Seymour NR, Boer AH (1994) Black duck-mallard behavioural interactions in relation to hybridization. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 72, 1517–1521.
Desjardins P, Morais R (1990) Sequence and gene organization of the chicken mitochondrial genome. Journal of Molecular Biology
Excoffier L, Smouse P, Quattro J (1992) Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: Application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genetics
Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: An approach using the bootstrap. Evolution, 39, 783–791.
Ferris SD, Sage RD, Huang C-M, Nielsen JT, Ritte U, Wilson AC (1983) Flow of mitochondrial DNA across a species boundary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 80, 2290–2294.
Goodwin CE (1956) Black duck and mallard populations in the Toronto area. Ontario Field Biologist, 10, 7–18.
Graham F Jr (1979) Farewell, Mexican duck. Audubon, 81, 24–26.
Gray PN (1993) The Biology of a Southern Mallard: Florida's Mottled Duck. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Gyllensten UB (1989) PCR and DNA sequencing. BioTechniques
Harpending HC, Sherry ST, Rogers AR, Stoneking M (1993) The genetic structure of ancient human populations. Current Anthropology, 34, 483–496.
Hasegawa M, Kishino H, Yano T (1985) Dating of the human-ape splitting by a molecular clock of mitochondrial DNA. Journal of Molecular Evolution
Hepp GR, Novak JM, Scribner KT, Stangel PW (1988) Genetic distance and hybridization of black ducks and mallards: A morph of a different color? Auk, 105, 804–807.
Heusmann HW (1974) Mallard-black duck relationships in the northeast. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2, 171–177.
Hillis DM, Bull JJ (1993) An empirical test of bootstrapping as a method for assessing confidence in phylogenetic analysis. Systematic Biology, 42, 182–192.
Hoysak DJ, Ankney CD (1996) Correlates of behavioural dominance in mallards and American black ducks. Animal Behaviour, 51, 409–419.
Johnsgard PA (1960) A quantitative study of sexual behavior of mallards and black ducks. Wilson Bulletin, 72, 133–155.
Johnsgard PA (1961) Evolutionary relationships among the North American mallards. Auk, 78, 3–43.
Johnsgard PA (1965) A Handbook of Waterfowl Behavior. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.
Johnsgard PA (1967) Sympatry changes and hybridization incidence in mallards and black ducks. American Midland Naturalist
Johnsgard PA (1978) Ducks, Geese, and Swans of the World. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska.
Johnson FA, Montalbano III F, Hines TC (1984) Population dynamics and status of the mottled duck in Florida. Journal of Wildlife Management, 48, 1137–1143.
Johnson KP, Sorenson MD (1999) Phylogeny and biogeography of dabbling ducks (genus: Anas): A comparison of molecular and morphological evidence. Auk, 116, 792–805.
Kear J (1970) Adaptive radiation of parental care in waterfowl. In: Social Behavior in Birds and Mammals: Essays on the Social Ethology of Animals and Man (ed Crook JH), pp. 357–392. Academic Press, New York, New York.
Kear J, Murton RK (1976) The origins of Australian waterfowl as indicated by their photoresponses. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Ornithological Congress (eds. Frith HJ, Calaby JH), pp. 83–87. Australian Academy of Science, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory.
Kimura M (1980) A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution
Livezey BC (1991) A phylogenetic analysis of and classification of recent dabbling ducks (tribe Anatini) based on comparative morphology. Auk, 108, 471–507.
Livezey BC (1993) Comparative morphometrics of Anas ducks, with particular reference to the Hawaiian duck Anas wyvilliana, Laysan duck, A. laysanensis, and Eaton's pintail A. eatoni. Wildfowl, 44, 75–100.
Marshall HD, Baker AJ (1997) Structural conservation and variation in the mitochondrial control region of fringilline finches (Fringilla
spp.) and in the greenfinch (Carduelis chloris
). Molecular Biology and Evolution
Mayr E (1963) Animal Species and Evolution. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
McAuley DG, Clugston DA, Longcore JR (1998) Outcome of aggressive interactions between American black ducks and mallards during the breeding season. Journal of Wildlife Management, 62, 134–141.
McKenzie PM, Zwank PJ, Moser EB (1988) Mottled duck population trends based on analyses of Christmas bird count data. American Birds, 42, 512–516.
Michot TC (1996) Marsh loss in coastal Louisiana: Implications for management of North American Anatidae. Gibier Faune Sauvage, Game and Wildlife, 13, 941–957.
Moritz C (1994) Defining “evolutionary significant units” for conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 9, 373–375.
Moorman TE (1991) Carcass Mass, Composition, and Gut Morphology Dynamics of Mottled Ducks in Louisiana in Relation to Annual Cycle Events. Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York, Syracuse, New York.
Moorman TE, Gray PN (1994) Mottled duck (Anas fulvigula). In: The Birds of North America, No. 81 (eds. Poole A, Gill F). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Nei M (1987) Molecular Evolutionary Genetics. Columbia University Press, New York, New York.
Neigel JE, Avise JC (1986) Phylogenetic relationships of mitochondrial DNA under various demographic models of speciation. In: Evolutionary Processes and Theory (eds. Nevo E, Karlin S), pp. 515–534. Academic Press, New York, New York.
Omland KE (1997) Examining two standard assumptions of ancestral reconstructions: Repeated loss of dichromatism in dabbling ducks (Anatini). Evolution, 51, 1636–1646.
Palmer RS (1976) Handbook of North American Birds, Vol. 2. Waterfowl (Part 1). Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.
Patton JC, Avise JC (1986) Evolutionary genetics of birds IV. Rates of protein divergence in waterfowl (Anatidae). Genetica, 68, 129–143.
Paulus SL (1988) Social behavior and pairing chronology of mottled ducks during autumn and winter in Louisiana. In: Waterfowl in Winter (ed. Weller MW), pp. 59–70. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Peters J (1931) A Check-List of the Birds of the World, vol. 1. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Peterson AT (1996) Geographic variation in sexual dichromatism in birds. Bulletin of the British Ornithological Club, 116, 156–172.
Posada D, Crandall KA (1998) Modeltest: Testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics
Quinn TW, Wilson AC (1993) Sequence evolution in and around the mitochondrial control region in birds. Journal of Molecular Evolution
Ramos MG (1999) Texas Almanac 2000–2001. Dallas Morning News, A. H. Belo. Corporation, Dallas, Texas.
Rhymer JM (2001) Evolutionary relationships and conservation of the Hawaiian anatids. Studies in Avian Biology, 22, 61–67.
Rhymer JM, Williams MJ, Braun MJ (1994) Mitochondrial analysis of gene flow between New Zealand mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and grey ducks (A. superciliosa). Auk, 111, 970–978.
Rogers AR (1995) Genetic evidence for a Pleistocene population explosion. Evolution, 49, 608–615.
Rogers AR, Harpending HC (1992) Population growth makes waves in the distribution of pairwise genetic differences. Molecular Biology and Evolution
Schneider S, Roessli D, Excoffier L (1999) Arlequin Version 2.0: A Software for Population Genetic Data Analysis. Genetics and Biometry Laboratory, University of Geneva, Switzerland.
Sibley CG, Monroe Jr BL (1990) Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.
Slatkin M, Hudson RR (1991) Pairwise comparisons of mitochondrial DNA sequences in stable and exponentially growing populations. Genetics
Sorenson MD, Ast JC, Dimcheff DE, Yuri T, Mindell DP (1999) Primers for a PCR-based approach to mitochondrial genome sequencing in birds and other vertebrates. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Sorenson MD, Cooper A, Paxinos EE, Quinn TW, James HF, Olson SL, Fleischer RC (1999) Relationships of the extinct moanalos, flightless Hawaiian waterfowl, based on ancient DNA. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 266, 2187–2193.
Sorenson MD, Fleischer RC (1996) Multiple independent transpositions of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to the nucleus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 93, 15239–15243.
Stutzenbaker CD (1988) TheMottled Duck, Its Life History, Ecology and Management. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Austin, Texas.
Swift CC, Gilbert CR, Bortone AS, Burgess GH, Yerger RW (1986) In: The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes (eds. Hocutt CH, Wiley EO), pp. 213–265. Wiley, New York.
Swofford DL (1998) PAUP*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods), Version 4. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.
Tajima F (1983) Evolutionary relationships of DNA sequences in finite populations. Genetics
Tajima F (1989) Statistical method for testing the neutral mutation hypothesis by DNA polymorphism. Genetics
Tegelstrom H (1986) Transfer of mitochondrial DNA from the Northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilus) to the bank vole (C. glareolus). Journal of Molecular Evolution, 23, 218–227.
Walker D, Avise JC (1998) Principles of phylogeography illustrated by freshwater and terrestrial turtles in the southeastern United States. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 29, 23–58.
Weller MW (1980) The Island Waterfowl. Iowa University Press, Ames, Iowa.