On the Emotional Character of Trust
- Bernd Lahno
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Trustful interaction serves the interests of those involved. Thus, one could reason that trust itself may be analyzed as part of rational, goal‐oriented action. In contrast, common sense tells us that trust is an emotion and is, therefore, independent of rational deliberation to some extent. I will argue that we are right in “trusting” our common sense. My argument is conceptual in nature, referring to the common distinction between trust and pure reliance. An emotional attitude may be understood as some general pattern in the way the world or some part of the world is perceived by an individual. Trust may be characterized by such a pattern. I shall focus on two central features of a trusting attitude. First, trust involves a participant attitude (Strawson) toward the person being trusted. Second, a situation of trust is perceived by a trusting person as one in which shared values or norms motivate both his own actions as well as those of the person being trusted. As an emotional attitude, trust is, to some extent, independent of objective information. It determines what a trusting person will believe and how various outcomes are evaluated. Hence, trust is quite different from rational belief and the problem with trust is not adequately met in minimizing risk by supplying extensive information or some mechanism of sanctioning. Trust is an attitude that enables us to cope with risk in a certain way. If we want to promote trustful interaction, we must form our institutions in ways that allow individuals to experience their interest and values as shared and, thus, to develop a trusting attitude.
- Aristotle, “Rhetoric”, in Jonathan Barnes (ed.) The Complete Works of Aristotle, Vol. 2. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984, pp. 2152–2269.
- Baier, Annette, Trust and Antitrust, Ethics 96 (1986), pp. 231–260.
- Bollnow, Otto Friedrich, Existenzphilosophie und Pädagogik. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1959.
- Coleman, James S., Foundations of Social Theory, Cambridge, MA/London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1990.
- Calhoun, Cheshire, Cognitive Emotions?, in C. Calhoun and R.C. Solomon (eds) What is an Emotion? Classical Readings in Philosophical Psychology. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984, pp. 327–342.
- Calhoun, Cheshire and Solomon, Robert C., (eds), What is an Emotion? Classical Readings in Philosophical Psychology. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984.
- Dasgupta, Partha, Trust as a Commodity, in D. Gambetta (ed.), Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations. Oxford/New York: Basil Blackwell, 1988, pp. 49–72.
- Dennet, Daniel C., Intentional Systems, Journal of Philosophy 8 (1987), pp. 87–106.
- de Sousa, Ronald, The Rationality of Emotion, Cambridge, MA/London: MIT Press, 1987.
- Deutsch, Morton, Trust and Suspicion, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 4 (1958), pp. 265–279.
- Elster, Jon, Alchemies of The Mind. Rationality and the Emotions. New York/Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
- Flew, Antony and Macintyre, A., New Essays in Philosophical Theology. London, 1955.
- Gambetta, Diego, Can We Trust Trust, in D. Gambetta (ed.), Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations. Oxford/New York: Basil Blackwell, 1988, pp. 213–238.
- Govier, Trudy, An Epistemology of Trust, International Journal of Moral and Social Studies, 8(2) (1993), pp. 155–174.
- Govier, Trudy, Social Trust and Human Communities. Montreal/Kingston/London/Buffalo: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1997.
- Hardin, Russell, Trusting Persons, Trusting Institutions, in R. Zeckhauser (ed.), Strategy and Choice. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991, pp. 183–209.
- Hartmann, Nicolai, Ethik. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1962.
- Hollis, Martin, Trust within Reason. Cambridge, UK/New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
- Holton, Richard, Deciding to Trust, Coming to Believe, Australian Journal of Philosophy, 72(1) (1994), pp. 63–76.
- Horsburgh, H.J.N., The Ethics of Trust, Philosophical Quarterly 10, (1960), pp. 343–354.
- Kollock, Peter, The Emergence of Exchange Structures: An Experimental Study of Uncertainty, Commitment and Trust”, The American Journal of Sociology, 100(2) (1994), pp. 313–345.
- Makarenko, A.S., Der Weg ins Leben. Berlin/Weimar: Aufbau-Verlag, 1974.
- Mayer, Roger C., Davis, James H. and Schoorman, F. David, An Integrative Model of Organizional Trust, Academy of Management Review, 20(3) (1995), pp. 709–734.
- Morgan, Robert M. and Hunt, Shelby D., The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing, Journal of Marketing, 58 (1994), 20–38.
- Pettit, Philip, The Cunning of Trust, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 24(3) (1995), pp. 202–225.
- Shapiro, Susan P., The Social Control of Impersonal Trust, American Journal of Sociology 93 (1987), pp. 623–658.
- Sitkin, Sim B. and Roth, Nancy L., Explaining the Limited Effectiveness of Legalistic, Remedies' for Trust/Distrust, Organization Science, 4(3) (1993), pp. 367–392.
- Solomon, Leonard, The Influence of Some Types of Power Relationships and Game Strategies upon the Development of Interpersonal Trust, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 61(2) (1960), pp. 223–230.
- Solomon, Robert, The Passions. Emotions and The Meaning of Life. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1993.
- Strawson, Peter F., Freedom and Resentment. London: Methuen, 1974.
- Tyler, Tom R. and Degoey, Peter, Trust in Organizational Authorities: The Influence of Motive Attributions on Willingness to Accept Decisions, in R.M. Kramer and T.R. Tyler (eds), Trust in Organizations. Frontiers of Theory and Research. Thousand Oaks/London/ New Delhi: SAGE, 1996.
- Williamson, Oliver E., Calculativeness, Trust, and Economic Organization, Journal of Law and Economics 36(1) (1993), pp. 453–486.
- Wisdom, John, Gods, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 45 (1944–45), pp. 185–206.
- On the Emotional Character of Trust
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice
Volume 4, Issue 2 , pp 171-189
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- rational choice
- Bernd Lahno (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut, Soziologie I, Heinrich‐Heine‐Universität Düsseldorf, Universitätsstrasse 1, D‐40224, Düsseldorf, Germany