Bäck, T. (1994). “Selective Pressure in Evolutionary Algorithms: A Characterization of Selection Mechanisms.” *Proceedings of the First IEEE Conference on Evolutionary Computation*, Vol. 1. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, pp. 57–62.

Bäck, T. (1995). “Generalized Convergence Models for Tournament-and *(µ,*λ*)*-Selection.” In (Eschelman, 1995), pp. 2–8.

Baker, J.E. (1985). “Adaptive Selection Methods for Genetic Algorithms.” In J.J. Grefenstette (ed.), *Proceedings of an International Conference on Genetic Algorithms and Their Applications.* Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 101–111.

Baker, J.E. (1987). “Reducing Bias and Ineffiency in the Selection Algorithm.” In (Grefenstette, 1987), pp. 14–21.

Baluja, S. (1994). “Population-Based Incremental Learning:AMethod for Integrating Genetic Search Based Function Optimization and Competitive Learning.” Tech. Rep. No. CMU-CS-94-163, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.

Belding, T.C. (1995). “The Distributed Genetic Algorithm Revisited.” In (Eschelman, 1995), pp. 114–121.

Blickle, T. and L. Thiele. (1996). “A Comparison of Selection Schemes used in Evolutionary Algorithms.” *Evolutionary Computation* 4(4), 361–394.

Booker, L.B. (1982). “Intelligent Behavior as an Adaptation to the Task Environment.” Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Michigan. (University Microfilm No. 8214966).

Brindle, A. (1981). “Genetic Algorithms for Function Optimization.” Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Burrows, P. (1972). “Expected Selection Differentials for Directional Selection.” *Biometrics* 23, 1091–1100.

Cantú-Paz, E. (1999). “Migration Policies and Takeover Times in Parallel Genetic Algorithms.” In W. Banzhaf, J. Daida, A.E. Eiben, M.H. Garzon, V. Honavar, M. Jakiela, and R.E. Smith (eds.), *GECCO-99: Proceedings of the 1999 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference*. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, p. 775.

Cantú-Paz, E. and D.E. Goldberg. (2000). “Parallel Genetic Algorithms: Theory and Practice.” *Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering* 186, 221–238.

Eschelman, L. (ed.). (1995). *Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms*. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Goldberg, D.E. and K. Deb. (1991). “A Comparative Analysis of Selection Schemes used in Genetic Algorithms.” *Foundations of Genetic Algorithms*. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann 1, 69–93. (Also TCGA Report 90007).

Goldberg, D.E., K. Deb, and D. Thierens. (1993). “Toward a Better Understanding of Mixing in Genetic Algorithms.” *Journal of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers* 32(1), 10–16.

Grefenstette, J.J. (1981). “Parallel Adaptive Algorithms for Function Optimization.” Tech. Rep. No. CS-81-19, Vanderbilt University, Computer Science Department, Nashville, TN.

Grefenstette, J.J. (ed.). (1987). *Proceeding of the Second International Conference on Genetic Algorithms*. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Grosso, P.B. (1985). “Computer Simulations of Genetic Adaptation: Parallel Subcomponent Interaction in a Multilocus Model.” Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Michigan. (University Microfilms No. 8520908).

Hancock, P.J.B. (1997). “Selection: A Comparison of Selection Mechanisms.” In T. Bäck, D.B. Fogel, and Z. Michalewicz (eds.), *Handbook of Evolutionary Computation*. Bristol and New York: Institute of Physics Publishing and Oxford University Press, pp. C2.8:1–C2.8:11.

Harik, G.R., F.G. Lobo, and D.E. Goldberg. (1998). “The Compact Genetic Algorithm.” In I. of Electrical IEEE Press, *Proceedings of 1998 IEEE International Conference on Evolutionary Computation*. Piscataway, NJ, pp. 523–528.

Harter, H.L. (1970). *Order Statistics and Their Use in Testing and Estimation*.Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Holland, J.H. (1975). *Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems*. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Lin, S.-C., E.D. Goodman, and W.F. Punch III. (1997). “Investigating Parallel Genetic Algorithms on Job Shop Scheduling Problems.” In P.J. Angeline, R.G. Reynolds, J.R. McDonnell, and R. Eberhart (eds.), *Evolutionary Programming VI.* Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 383–393.

Miller, B.L. and D.E. Goldberg. (1995). “Genetic Algorithms, Tournament Selection, and the Effects of Noise.” *Complex Systems* 9(3), 193–212.

Miller, B.L. and D.E. Goldberg. (1996). “Genetic Algorithms, Selection Schemes, and the Varying Effects of Noise.” *Evolutionary Computation* 4(2), 113–131.

Mühlenbein, H. (1991). “Evolution in Time and Space—The Parallel Genetic Algorithm.” In G.J.E. Rawlins (ed.), *Foundations of Genetic Algorithms*. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, pp. 316–337.

Mühlenbein, H. and G. Paaβ. (1996). “From Recombination of Genes to the Estimation of Distributions I. Binary Parameters.” In (Voigt et al., 1996), pp. 178–187.

Mühlenbein, H. and D. Schlierkamp-Voosen. (1993). “Predictive Models for the Breeder Genetic Algorithm: I. Continuous Parameter Optimization.” *Evolutionary Computation* 1(1), 25–49.

Punch, W.F. (1998). “How Effective are Multiple Programs in Genetic Programming.” In J.R. Koza, W. Banzhaf, K. Chellapilla, K. Deb, M. Dorigo, D.B. Fogel, M.H. Garzon, D.E. Goldberg, H. Iba, and R.L. Riolo (eds.), *Genetic Programming 98*. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann, pp. 308–313.

Sarma, J. and K. De Jong. (1996). “An Analysis of the Effects of Neighborhood Size and Shape on Local Selection Algorithms.” In (Voigt et al., 1996), pp. 236–244.

Sarma, J. and K. De Jong. (1997). “An Analysis of Local Selection Algorithms in a Spatially Structured Evolutionary Algorithm.” In T. Bäck (ed.), *Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Genetic Algorithms*. San Francisco, Morgan Kaufmann, pp. 181–187.

Schaffer, J.D. (ed.). (1989). *Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Genetic Algorithms*. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Schwefel, H. (1981). *Numerical Optimization of Computer Models*. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.

Syswerda, G. (1989). “Uniform Crossover in Genetic Algorithms.” In (Schaffer, 1989), pp. 2–9.

Tanese, R. (1987). “Parallel Genetic Algorithm for a Hypercube.” In (Grefenstette, 1987), pp. 177–183.

Tanese, R. (1989). “Distributed Genetic Algorithms.” In (Schaffer, 1989), pp. 434–439.

Thierens, D. and D.E. Goldberg. (1993). “Mixing in Genetic Algorithms.” In S. Forrest (ed.), *Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms*. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, pp. 38–45.

Thierens, D. and D.E. Goldberg. (1994). “Convergence Models of Genetic Algorithm Selection Schemes.” In Y. Davidor, H.-P. Schwefel, and R. Männer (eds.), *Parallel Problem Solving from Nature, PPSN III*. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 119–129.

Voigt, H.-M., W. Ebeling, I. Rechenberg, and H.-P. Schwefel (eds.). (1996). *Parallel Problem Solving from Nature, PPSN IV*. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Whitley, D. (1993). “An Executable Model of a Simple Genetic Algorithm.” In L.D. Whitley (ed.), *Foundations of Genetic Algorithms 2*. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, pp. 45–62.

Whitley, D., S. Rana, and R.B. Heckendorn. (1999). “Exploiting Separability in Search: The Island Model Genetic Algorithm.” *Journal of Computing and Information Technology* 7(1), 33–47.