Adrianc, Jim, “Planting the seeds of a new agriculture: living with the land in Central America.” Grassroots Development
19(1) (1995), 2-17.Google Scholar
Akkerman, Age and Peter van Baar, El Café Orgáico: La Sostenibilidad de un Grano de Oro
. CDR Serie Estudios No. 4 (Centro de Estudios para el Desarrollo Rural, Universidad Libre de Amsterdam, Oficina Regional Centroamericano, San José, Costa Rica, 1992).Google Scholar
Blaikie, Piers, The Political Economy of Soil Erosion in Developing Countries
(Longman Scientific and Technical, New York, 1985).Google Scholar
Bray, David, “Where markets and ecology meet: organic coffee from the Sierra Madre of Chiapas.” Inter-American Foundation Review
(IAF, Washington, DC, 1991).Google Scholar
Bray, David, interview. Telephone conservation with Dr. Bray, Chair and Associate Professor Department of Environmental Studies, Florida International University, Miami, FL (August 2, 2000).
Buck, Daniel, Christina Getz, and Julie Guthman, “Consolidating the commodity chain: organic farming and agribusiness in northern California.” Working paper and Food First Development Report (Institute for Food and Development Policy: Oakland, CA, 1996).Google Scholar
Burgess, John, “Deal brews to give fairer deal to farmers: coffee at premium price improves growers' lot,” The Washington Post (Saturday, May 13, 2000), p. E-1.
Carlton, Jim, “A global effort for poor coffee farmers: 'fair trade' movement's strategy is to bypass middlemen,” The Wall Street Journal (1999), p. A-2.
CLUSA, data from the Cooperative League USA comes from correspondence with Stanley Kuehn, CLUSA director in San Salvador, El Salvador, 1994-1998.
Coffee Working Group, “Campaign for improvement of working and living conditions on coffee plantations.” Newletter No. 2 (July) (Fair Trade Organisatie, Culemborg, the Netherlands, 2000) [www.fairtrade.nl].Google Scholar
Collier, Robert, “Coffee lovers find a cause,” The San Francisco Chronicle (Thursday, October 14, 2000) p. A-16.
Deane, Jan, Communication (via electronic mail) with Ms. Jan Deane, Chair of the IFOAM Standards Committee (September 2, 1998).
Dicum, Gregory and Nina Luttinger, The Coffee Book: Anatomy of an Industry from Crop to the Last Drop
(The New Press, New York, 1999).Google Scholar
Dudley, Nigel, Chris Elliot, and Sue Stolton, “A framework for environmental labelling,” Environment
39(6) (1997), 16-25.Google Scholar
Equal Exchange, Document (“Fair Trade: A Viable Alternative for Small Producers”) provided by Equal Exchange, fair trade coffee distributor in the United States, located in Canton, MA (March, 1995).
European Fair Trade Associations (EFTA) Yearbook. (1995). Found at <http:// antenna.nl/fairtrade/fair66.html> on the Internet.
European Fair Trade Associations (EFTA) Yearbook. (1994). EFTA's Fair Trade Survey of European Countries, listed at <www.web.net/fairtrade/fairtrade/fair632.html>.
Fair TradeMark Canada, n.d. Campaign Kit developed and published by Fair TradeMark Canada, a TransFair affiliate in Ottawa, Ontario. Website address: <www.web.net/fairtrade>.
Foppen, Reina, Communication with Ms. Foppen, Secretary for FLO-CR at the Max Havelaar office in Utrecht, Netherlands (1998).
FAO, various years United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Production and Trade Yearbooks (FAO: Rome). Also on the internet at www.fao.org, under Statistical Databases.
FAO, Organic agriculture (Document COAG/99/9). United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's Committee on Agriculture, 15th Session, Rome, Italy (1998).
FLO, Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International, list of producer organizations and cooperatives (dated 19 July 2000), provided by TransFair.
Fuchs, Peter, “Organic and Fair Trade coffee of High Quality from Costa Rica, Guatemala and the Dominican Republic: Preliminary Study/Current Situation Analysis” (Fox Research AB, Stockholm, Sweden, 1997).Google Scholar
Geier, Bernward, Communication with Mr. Bernward Geier, Executive Director of IFOAM, September 9, 1998.
Goodman, David, “Agro-food studies in the 'age of ecology': nature, corporeality, biopolitics,” Sociologia Ruralis
39(1) (1999), 17-38.Google Scholar
Gorman, Laura, “What's brewing in coffee?: the 1997 SCAA/Gourmet Retailer Specialty Coffee Research Report. Pt. I,” The Gourmet Retailer
18(5) (1997), 113-126.Google Scholar
Griswold, David, Conversation withMr. Griswold, president of Sustainable Harvest Coffee Company in Emeryville, CA, at the Specialty Coffee Association of America annual meeting, New Orleans, LA, April, 1997.
Hayashi, Hidetaka,Written communication withMr. Hayashi, President of Hayashi Coffee Institute in Tokyo, Japan. June/July, 2000.
Heid, Petra, Letter communication from Ms. Heid, International Section of Naturland Verband, Grafelfing, Germany, 9 January 1997.
Heinnegg, Ayo and Karen M. Ferroggiaro, “Inter-American foundation Strategy in the Mexican Coffee Sector: A Case Study of ISMAM.” Report prepared on site in Chiapas, Mexico for the Inter-American Foundation, November, 1996.
International Coffee Organization (ICO), “Agricultural and Economic Analysis of Organically Grown or 'Organic' Coffee.” Document EB-3639/97 (E) (ICO, London, 1997).
International Coffee Register (ICR), Correspondence with Marjoleine Motz, Coordinator of the International Fair Trade Coffee Producers' Register Max Havelaar/ TransFair/Fairtrade in Utrecht, Netherlands (1996).
IFOAM, IFOAM Basic Standards for Organic Agriculture and Processing and Guidelines for Coffee, cocoa and Tea; Evaluation of Inputs (Werbedruck, St. Wendel, 1996).
Junguito, R. and D. Pizano, Producción de Café en Colombia
. Bogota: FEDESARROLLO/ Fondo Cultural Cafetero (1991).Google Scholar
Kuehn, Stanley, “The Certified Organic Coffee Project in El Salvador.” Paper presented and in the proceedings of the First Sustainable Coffee Congress, National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, September (Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center, Washington, DC, 1996).Google Scholar
Lee, Thomas, “Starbucks gives in to coffee activists,” Seattle Times Monday, April 10, 2000.
Luttinger, Nina and Gregory Dicum, “Wake up and smell the coffee: why your cup is brewing with issues and what you can do,” The San Francisco Bay Guardian
May 26-June 1, 1999, Vol. 33, No. 34, pp. 22-25.Google Scholar
McArthur, Loren, “Cup of justice,” Dollars and Sense
217 (May/June) (1998), 6.Google Scholar
Medina, Gerardo, Communication with Mr. Medina, a certified organic inspector in Peru (1999).
Murdoch, Jonathan, “Inhuman/nonhuman/human: actor-network theory and the prospects for a nondualistic and symmetrical perspective on nature and society,” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space
15 (1997), 731-756.Google Scholar
Murphy, C. Ellen, “La Selva and the magnetic pull of markets: organic coffee-growing in Mexico,” Grassroots Development
19(1) (1995), 27-34.Google Scholar
Neuendorff, Jochen, “The national certification of organic products: where is it heading?” Agriculture and Rural Development
1/97 (1997) pp. 47-49.Google Scholar
Nigh, Ronald, “Organic Agriculture and Globalization: A Maya Associative Corporation in Chiapas, Mexico,” Human Organization
56(4) (1997) 427-435Google Scholar
Paige, M. Jeffery, “Coffee and power in El Salvador,” Latin American Research Review
28(3) (1993), 7-40.Google Scholar
Perez-Grovas, Victor, Interview with Mr. Perez-Grovas, President of the coffee cooperative Majomut, based in San Cristobal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico (1999).
Rice, Paul, Interview with Mr. Rice, long-time organic coffee cooperative organizer and current Executive Director of TransFair, USA in San Francisco, CA (1999).
Rice, Paul, “Misconceptions about fair trade coffee,” Specialty Coffee Chronicle: A Publication of the Specialty Coffee Association of America
, July/August (SCAA, Long Beach, CA, 2000), p. 14.Google Scholar
Rice, A. Robert and Justin Ward, Coffee, Conservation and Commerce in the Western Hemisphere
, White Paper No. 2 by the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center (Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center/Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC, 1996).Google Scholar
Riddle, Jim, Conversation with Mr. Jim Riddle, president of the Independent Organic Inspectors Association (IOIA), based in Winona, MN, September 8, 1998.
Roseberry, William, “Introduction.” In William Roseberry, Lowell Gudmundson, and Mario Samper Kutschbach (eds.), Coffee, Society, and Power in Latin America
(Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1995), pp. 1-37.Google Scholar
Rosset, Peter and Miguel Altieri. “Agroecology versus input substitution: a fundamental contradiction of sustainable agriculture,” Society and Natural Resources 10, 283-295.
SAGAR, “Alianza para el Campo Programa Café.” 1995-2000 (SAGAR/Consejo Mexicano del Café: Mexico, DF) January 30, 1996. Salter, Stephanie, “Smelling the coffee-it's 'Fair Trade' Certified,” San Francisco Examiner Thursday, April 13, 2000.
Samper Kutschbach, Mario, “In difficult times: Colombian and Costa Rican coffee growers from prosperity to crisis, 1920-1936.” In William Roseberry, Lowell Gudmundson, and Mario Samper Kutschbach (eds.), Coffee, Society, and Power in Latin America
(Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, 1995), pp. 151-180.Google Scholar
Sánchez, José Luís Plaza, Ellen Contreras Murphy, and David Barton Bray in review. “From certification criteria to social capital: learning from organic coffee production in Mexico,” ms. submitted to World Development.
Thomson, Bob, Interview with Mr. Thomson of TransFair Canada in Ottawa, Canada, July, 1998.
Thrupp, Lori Ann, New Partnerships for Sustainable Agriculture
(World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, 1996).Google Scholar
Thrupp, Lori Ann, “Nuevas oportunidades de mercado para el café orgánico.” Paper presented at the workshop”Políticas de Plaguicidas en América Central” sponsored by CATIE-IICA at Turrialba, Costa Rica, September 17-19, 1997.
Tiffen, Pauline, “Reflections on the challenges faced and the challenges ahead,” Coffee Break! Information Bullentin of Max Havelaar/TransFair/Fairtrade No. 6, April, 1997.
USDA, Japan Agricultural Situation: Organics Update, Foreign Agricultural Service GAIN Report #JA9123, October 5, 1999.
USDA, Japan Agricultural Situation: This Week in Japan, Foreign Agricultural Service GAIN Report #JA0066, June 12, 2000.
Vandermeer, John and Ivette Perfecto, Breakfast of Biodiversity
(Food First, Oakland, CA, 1995).Google Scholar
Waridel, Laure and Sara Teitelbaum, Fair Trade: Contributing to Equitable Commerce in Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, and France Report to Equiterre, Montreal, Canada, 1999 (www.equiterre.qc.ca/english/rapport.html).
Watts, Michael and David Goodman, “Agrarian questions: global appetite, local metabolism: nature, culture, and industry in fin-de-siècle
agro-food systems,” In David Goodman and Michael J. Watts (eds.), Globalizing Food: Agrarian Questions and Global Restructuring
(Routledge, London, 1997) pp. 1-34.Google Scholar
Whatmore, Sarah and Lorraine Thorne, “Nourishing networks: alternative geographies of food.” In David Goodman and Michael J. Watts (eds.), Globalizing Food: Agrarian Questions and Global Restructuring
(Routledge, London, 1997) pp. 287-304.Google Scholar
Williams, G. Robert, States and Social Evolution: Coffee and the Rise of National Governments in Central America
(University of North Carolina: Chapel Hill, NC, 1994).Google Scholar
Yoshida, Hideki, Interview with Mr. Yoshida, president of Musubi International, in Reseda, California, May 22, 2000.
Zavaleta García, Francisco, Conversation with Mr. Zavaleta, General Director of the cooperative “UCI Cien Años de Soledad” in Pochutla, Oaxaca, during a visit he made to Washington, DC in July, 1996.