National Center for Health Statistics. Births: Final data for 1997. Nat Vit Stat Rep 1999;47:18.
Solomon I, Becerra JE, Rowley DL, Hogue CJR. Impact of very low birth weight on the black-white infant mortality gap. Am J Prev Med 1992;8:271–7.
Lieberman E, Ryan KJ, Monson RR, Schoenbaum SC. Risk factors accounting for racial differences in the rate of premature birth. N Engl J Med 1987;317:743–8.
Kempe A, Wise PH, Barkan SE, Sappenfield WM, Sachs B, Gortmaker SL, Sobol AM, First LR, Pursley D, Rinehart H, Kotelchuck M, Cole FS, Gunter N, Stockbauer JW. Clinical determinants of the racial disparity in very low birth weight. N Engl J Med 1992;327:969–73.
Goldenberg RL, Cliver SP, Mulvihill FX, Hickey CA, Hoffman HJ, Klerman LV, Johnson MJ. Medical, psychosocial and behavioral risk factors do not explain the increased risk for low birthweight among black women.AmJ Obstet Gynecol 1996;175:1317–24.
Collins JW, David RJ. The differential effect of traditional risk factors on infant birth weight among blacks and whites in Chicago. Am J Public Health 1990;80:679–81.
Gould JB, LeRoy S. Socioeconomic status and low birth weight: A racial comparison. Pediatrics 1988;82:896–904.
Kleinman JC, Kessel SS. Racial differences in low birthweight–trends and risk factors. N Engl J Med 1987;317: 749–53.
Starfield B, Shapiro S, Weiss J, Liang KY, Ra K, Paige D, Wang X. Race, family income, and low birth weight.AmJ Epidemiol 1991;134:1167–74.
Stanfield R. The other side of poverty. Natl J 1992;43:2456.
Kleinman JC, Fingerhut LA, Prager K. Differences in infant mortality by race, nativity status, and other maternal characteristics. Am J Dis Child 1991;145:194–9.
Spurlock CW, Hinds W, Skaggs JW, Hernandez CE. Infant death rates among the poor and nonpoor in Kentucky, 1982 to 1983. Pediatrics 1987;80:262–9.
Nelson MD. Socioeconomic status and childhood mortality in North Carolina. Am J Public Health 1992;82:1131–3.
Jaynes GD, Williams RM, editors. A common destiny–Blacks and American society. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1989.
Updegrave W. Race and money. Money, December 1989:152–172.
McGrady GA, Sung JF, Rowley DL, Hogue CJR. Preterm delivery and low birth weight among first-born infants of black and white college graduates.AmJ Epidemiol 1992;136:266–76.
Institute of Medicine. Preventing lowbirthweight. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1985.
Chasnoff IJ, Landress HJ, Barrett ME.The prevalence of illicit-drug or alcohol use during pregnancy and discrepancies in mandatory reporting in Pinellas County, Florida. N Engl J Med 1990;332:1202–6.
Neuspiel DR. Racism and perinatal addiction. Ethn Dis 1996;6:47–55.
CDC. Pregnancy risks determined from birth certificate data–United States, 1989. MMWR 1992;41:556–63.
Floyd RL, Rimer BK, Giovino G, Mullen PD, Sullivan SE. A review of smoking in pregnancy: Effects on pregnancy outcomes and cessation efforts. Annu Rev Public Health 1993;14:379–411.
Serdula M, Williamson DF, Kendrick JS, Anda RF, Byers T. Trends in alcohol consumption by pregnant women–1985 through 1988. JAMA 1991;265:876–9.
Arnold CC, Kramer MS, Hobbs CA, McLean FH, Usher RH. Very low birth weight: A problematic cohort for epidemiologic studies of very small or immature neonates. Am J Epidemiol 1991;134:604–13.
Berg CJ, Zupan J, d'Almada PJ. Proximate causes of delivery in a geographically based very low birthweight population. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 1993;7:A20.
Kramer MS. Birthweight and infant mortality: Perceptions and pitfalls. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 1990;4:381–90.
Tresserras R, Canela J, Alvarez J, Sentis J, Salleras L. Infant mortality, per capita income, and adult illiteracy: An ecological approach. Am J Public Health 1992;82:435–8.
Keil JE, Sutherland SE, Knapp RG, Tyroler HA. Does equal socioeconomic status in black and white men mean equal risk of mortality? Am J Public Health 1992;82:1133–6.
Margolis PA, Greenberg RA, Keyes LL, LaVange LM, Chapman RS, Denny FW, Baumen KE, Boat BW. Lower respiratory illness in infants and low socioeconomic status. Am J Public Health 1992;82:1119–26.
Rantakallio P. Inequalities in children's deaths in the country with the lowest infant mortality? Public Health 1986;100: 152–5.
Nordstrom M-L, Cnattingius S, Haglund B. Social differences in Swedish infant mortality by cause of death, 1983 to 1986. Am J Public Health 1993;83:26–30.
Rothman KJ, Poole C. A strengthening program for weak associations. Int J Epidemiol 1988;17(Suppl.):955–9.
Schoendorf KC, Hogue CJR, Kleinman JC, Rowley D. Mortality among infants of black as compared with white collegeeducated parents. N Engl J Med 1992;326:1522–6.
Collins JW, David RJ, Symons R, Handler A, Wall SN, Dwyer L. Low-income African-American mothers' perception of exposure to racial discrimination and infant birth weight. Epidemiology 2000;11:337–9.
Wise PH, Pursley DM. Infant mortality as a social mirror. N Engl J Med 1992; 326:1558–60.
David RJ, Collins JW Jr. Bad outcomes in black babies: Race or racism? Ethn Dis 1991;1:236–44.
Kreiger N, Rowley DL. Re: “Race, family income, and low birth weight.” Am J Epidemiol 1992;136:501.
Hogue CJR, Hargraves MA. Class, race, and infant mortality in the United States. Am J Public Health 1993;83:9–12.
Petros-Barvazian A, Behar M. Low birth-weight–a major global problem. In: Sterky G, Mellander L, editors. Birth-weight distribution–an indicator of social development. Uppsala: Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing countires, 1978. (SAREC Report No. R:2, 1978).