, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 231-238

Are Coffee, Tea, and Total Fluid Consumption associated with Bladder Cancer Risk? Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

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Abstract

Objectives: Coffee, tea, and fluid consumption have been thought to influence bladder cancer incidence. In a large prospective study, these associations were investigated. Methods: In 1986, cohort members (55–69 years) completed a questionnaire on cancer risk factors. Follow-up was established by linkage to cancer registries until 1992. The multivariable case–cohort analysis was based on 569 bladder cancer cases and 3123 subcohort members. Results: The incidence rate ratios (RR) for men consuming <2 cups of coffee/day was 0.89 (95% CI 0.51–1.5) using the median consumption category (4–<5 cups/day) as reference. This RR increased to 1.3 (95% CI 0.94–1.9) for men consuming ≥7 cups/day, although no clear dose–response association was found. The RRs decreased from 1.2 (95% CI 0.56–2.7) for women consuming <2 cups of coffee/day to 0.36 (95% CI 0.18–0.72) for women consuming ≥5 cups/day compared to the median consumption category (3–<4 cups/day). Men and women who abstained from drinking tea had a RR of 1.3 (95% CI 0.97–1.8) compared to those consuming 2–<3 cups of tea per day (median consumption category). The RR for men and women comparing highest to lowest quintile of total fluid consumption was 0.87 (95% CI 0.63–1.2). Conclusion: The data suggest a possible positive association between coffee consumption and bladder cancer risk in men and a probable inverse association in women. Tea consumption was inversely associated with bladder cancer. Total fluid consumption did not appear to be associated with bladder cancer.