Detection and Indentification of European Stone Fruit Yellows and Other Phytoplasmas in Wild Plants in the Surroundings of Apricot Chlorotic Leaf Roll-affected Orchards in Southern France
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- Jarausch, W., Jarausch-Wehrheim, B., Danet, J. et al. European Journal of Plant Pathology (2001) 107: 209. doi:10.1023/A:1011234921833
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Between 1994 and 1998 a field study was conducted to identify plant hosts of the European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) phytoplasma in two apricot growing regions in southern and southwestern France where the incidence of apricot chlorotic leaf roll was high. A total of 431 samples from 51 different plant species were tested for the presence of phytoplasmas by PCR using universal and ESFY-specific primers. ESFY phytoplasma was detected in six different wild growing Prunus species exhibiting typical ESFY symptoms as well as in symptomless dog rose bushes (Rosa canina), ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior) and a declining hackberry (Celtis australis). The possible role of these plant species in the spread of ESFY phytoplasma is discussed. PCR-RFLP analysis of ribosomal DNA amplified with the universal primers was carried out to characterize the other phytoplasmas found. Thus, elm yellows phytoplasma, alder yellows phytoplasma and rubus stunt phytoplasma were detected in declining European field elm trees (Ulmus carpinifolia Gled), in declining European alder trees (Alnus glutinosa) and in proliferating Rubus spp. respectively. The presence of rubus stunt phytoplasma in great mallow (Malva sylvestris) and dog rose was demonstrated for the first time. Furthermore, the stolbur phytoplasma was detected in proliferating field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) and a previously undescribed phytoplasma type was detected in red dogwood (Cornus sanguinea). According to the 16S rDNA-RFLP pattern this new phytoplasma belongs to the stolbur phytoplasmas group.