, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 151-156

Flurbiprofen Enantiomers Inhibit Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

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Abstract

Purpose. Using RAW 264.7 macrophages, the present study investigates the influence of optically pure enantiomers of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression.

Methods. iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Concentrations of nitrite (index of cellular NO production) and prostaglandin E2 (index of COX-2 activity) in cell culture supernatants were determined by Griess assay and enzyme immunoassay, respectively.

Results. R(−)- and S(+)-flurbiprofen decreased LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and nitrite levels in an equipotent and concentration-dependent manner. Suppression of iNOS mRNA expression by R(−)- and S(+)-flurbiprofen was gene-specific in that both substances failed to inhibit LPS-induced COX-2 mRNA expression. By contrast, flurbiprofen enantiomers suppressed LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 formation enantioselectively with S(+)-flurbiprofen being considerably more potent than its R(−)-antipode.

Conclusions. Our results show that R(−)- and S(+)-flurbiprofen, albeit differing in their potency as inhibitors of COX-2 activity, equipotently suppress iNOS expression. Because sustained high NO levels are associated with pain and tissue injury under various pathological conditions, a suppression of the inducible NO pathway may contribute to the pharmacological action of both R(−)- and S(+)-flurbiprofen.