Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 341–359

Long-Term Efficacy of Biobehavioral Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders

  • Margaret A. Gardea
  • Robert J. Gatchel
  • Kiran D. Mishra

DOI: 10.1023/A:1010682818427

Cite this article as:
Gardea, M.A., Gatchel, R.J. & Mishra, K.D. J Behav Med (2001) 24: 341. doi:10.1023/A:1010682818427


This study evaluated the relative long-term efficacy of biofeedback, cognitive–behavioral skills training (CBST), combined biofeedback and CBST (Combined), and no-treatment comparison groups in 108 patients suffering from chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD). After an initial evaluation, patients were assigned to one of the four treatment conditions. The three biobehavioral treatment interventions consisted of 12 standardized sessions. Patients were reevaluated 1 year after completing treatment. Results demonstrated that patients who received the biobehavioral treatments reported significant improvement in subjective pain, pain-related disability, and mandibular functioning 1 year after receiving treatment. The no-treatment comparison group did not demonstrate such improvements. The combined biofeedback and CBST treatment produced the most comprehensive improvements across all outcome measures. These results again demonstrate the heuristic value of adopting a biopsychosocial perspective to the assessment and treatment of chronic medical/dental disorders such as TMD.

biobehavioral treatmentbiofeedbackcognitive–behavioral skills trainingRDC/TMD diagnosistemporomandibular disorder

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margaret A. Gardea
  • Robert J. Gatchel
  • Kiran D. Mishra

There are no affiliations available