Photosynthesis Research

, Volume 66, Issue 1, pp 97-108

First online:

Acclimation response of spring wheat in a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) atmosphere with variable soil nitrogen regimes. 3. Canopy architecture and gas exchange

  • Talbot J. BrooksAffiliated withUSDA-ARS, US Water Conservation LaboratoryDepartment of Geography, Arizona State University Email author 
  • , Gerard W. WallAffiliated withUSDA-ARS, US Water Conservation Laboratory
  • , Paul J. PinterJr.Affiliated withUSDA-ARS, US Water Conservation Laboratory
  • , Bruce A. KimballAffiliated withUSDA-ARS, US Water Conservation Laboratory
  • , Robert L. LaMorteAffiliated withUSDA-ARS, US Water Conservation Laboratory
  • , Steven W. LeavittAffiliated withUniversity of Arizona
  • , Allan D. MatthiasAffiliated withUniversity of Arizona
  • , Floyd J. AdamsenAffiliated withUSDA-ARS, US Water Conservation Laboratory
  • , Douglas J. HunsakerAffiliated withUSDA-ARS, US Water Conservation Laboratory
    • , Andrew N. WebberAffiliated withDepartment of Plant Biology, Arizona State University

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The response of whole-canopy net CO2 exchange rate (CER) and canopy architecture to CO2 enrichment and N stress during 1996 and 1997 for open-field-grown wheat ecosystem (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) are described. Every Control (C) and FACE (F) CO2 treatment (defined as ambient and ambient +200 μmol mol−1, respectively) contained a Low- and High-N treatment. Low-N treatments constituted initial soil content amended with supplemental nitrogen applied at a rate of 70 kg N ha−1 (1996) and 15 kg N ha−1 (1997), whereas High-N treatments were supplemented with 350 kg N ha−1 (1996 and 1997). Elevated CO2 enhanced season-long carbon accumulation by 8% and 16% under Low-N and High-N, respectively. N-stress reduced season-long carbon accumulation 14% under ambient CO2, but by as much as 22% under CO2 enrichment. Averaging both years, green plant area index (GPAI) peaked approximately 76 days after planting at 7.13 for FH, 6.00 for CH, 3.89 for FL, and 3.89 for CL treatments. Leaf tip angle distribution (LTA) indicated that Low-N canopies were more erectophile than those of High-N canopies: 48° for FH, 52° for CH, and 58° for both FL and CL treatments. Temporal trends in canopy greenness indicated a decrease in leaf chlorophyll content from the flag to flag-2 leaves of 25% for FH, 28% for CH, 17% for CL, and 33% for FL during 1997. These results indicate that significant modifications of canopy architecture occurs in response to both CO2 and N-stress. Optimization of canopy architecture may serve as a mechanism to diminish CO2 and N-stress effects on CER.

canopy architecture canopy photosynthesis CO2 enrichment global change leaf area index leaf tip angle nitrogen stress Triticum aestivum