Journal of Nonverbal Behavior

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 187–205

Development and Initial Validation of the Children's Sadness Management Scale

  • Janice Zeman
  • Kimberly Shipman
  • Susan Penza-Clyve

DOI: 10.1023/A:1010623226626

Cite this article as:
Zeman, J., Shipman, K. & Penza-Clyve, S. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior (2001) 25: 187. doi:10.1023/A:1010623226626


Although sadness in children is a normal and transient experience, research has not investigated how children manage sadness. Understanding normative sadness management has important implications for helping children who exhibit maladaptive forms of emotional expression. The Children's Sadness Management Scale (CSMS) was developed to assess children's inhibition, dysregulated-expression, and coping with sadness experience and expression. Using multiple informants, reliability and validity were established based on a community sample of 227 fourth- and fifth-grade children's self-report, maternal report (N = 171), and peer ratings of behavior (N = 227). A three-factor solution was supported with strong internal consistency for the Inhibition scale and moderately strong internal consistency for the Emotion Regulation Coping and Dysregulated-Expression scales. Findings indicate that the CSMS provides a reliable and valid measure of normative sadness management.

emotion managementchildrenassessmentsadness

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janice Zeman
    • 1
  • Kimberly Shipman
    • 2
  • Susan Penza-Clyve
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MaineOrono
  2. 2.University of GeorgiaGeorgia
  3. 3.Brown University School of Medicine???