Agin, A. (1982). The kibbutzniks in the army. In Dar, Y. (ed.), Kibbutz Education: A Bi-Focal Socialization. Akademon, Jerusalem, pp. 527–532. (Hebrew, original work published 1970).
Allard, E. (1988). The current context of youth in economy, politics, and societal development: The new subjectivism. In Kuczynski, J., Eisenstadt, S. N., Ly, B., and Sarkar, L. (eds.), Perspectives on Contemporary Youth. UN University, Tokyo, pp. 132–146.
Amir, Y. (1969). The effectiveness of the kibbutz born soldier in the Israel Defense Forces. Hum. Rel. 22: 333–344.
Antonovsky, A., Marcus, J., and Katz, J. (1969). An Investigation of Leadership Qualities of Kibbutz Raised Young Men. Israel Institute of Applied Social Research, Jerusalem.
Arnett, J. J. (1997). Young people's conceptions of the transition to adulthood. Youth Soc. 29: 3–23.
Arnett, J. J., and Taber, S. (1994). Adolescence terminable and interminable: When does adolescence end? J. Youth Adolesc. 23: 1–21.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol. Rev. 84: 191–215.
Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. Am. Psychol. 37: 122–147.
Bloom, A. R. (1991). Women in the defense forces. In Swirski, B., and Safir, M. (eds.), Calling the Equality Bluff. Pergamon, New York, pp.128–138.
Blum-Kulka, S., and Liebes, T. (1993). Frame of ambiguities: Intifada, narrativization of the experience by Israeli soldiers. In Cohen, A. A., and Wolfsfeld, G. (eds.), Framing the Intifada: People and Media. Ablex, Norwood, NJ, pp. 27–52.
Bocknek, G. (1980). The Young Adult: Development After Adolescence. Brooks Cole, Monterey, CA.
Bosma, H. A. (1992). Identity in adolescence: Managing commitments. In Adams, G. R., Gullotta, T. P., and Montemayor, R. (eds.), Adolescent Identity Formation. Sage, Newbury Park, CA, pp. 91–121.
Côte, J. E., and Levine, C. (1987). A formulation of ego identity formation. Devel. Rev. 7: 273–325.
Dar, Y. (1993). Youth in the kibbutz: The prolonged transition to adulthood. Israel Soc. Sci. Res. 8: 122–146.
Dar, Y. (1995). Kibbutz education: A sociological account. J. Moral Educ. 24: 225–244.
Dar, Y., Kimhi, S., Shtadler, N., and Epstein, A. (2000). The imprints of the Intifada: Response of Kibbutz-born soldiers to military service in the West Bank and Gaza. Armed Forces Soc. 26: 285–311.
Davis, J. A. (1959). A formal interpretation of the theory of relative deprivation. Sociometry 22: 280–296.
Dimitrovsky, L., Singer, J., and Yinon, Y. (1989). Masculine and feminine traits: Their relation to suitedness for and success in training for traditionally masculine and feminine army functions. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 57: 839–847.
Elder, G. H., Jr. (1985). Perspectives on the life course. In Elder, G. H. (ed.), Life Course Dynamics. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, pp. 23–49.
Elder, G. H., Jr. (1986). Military times and turning points in men's lives. Devel. Psychol. 22: 233–245.
Erikson, E. H. (1955). Ego identity and the psychosocial moratorium. In Witmer, H. L., and Kotinsky, R. (eds.), New Perspectives for Research on Juvenile Delinquency. U.S. Department of Health, Washington, DC, pp. 1–23.
Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity, Youth and Crisis. Norton, New York.
Eshkol, E., Lieblich, A., Bar-Yosef, R., and Wiseman, H. (1987). Some correlates of adjustment of Israeli women-soldiers to their military roles. Israel Soc. Sci. Res. 5: 17–28.
Evans, G., and Poole, M. (1990). Young Adults: Self-Perceptions and Life Contexts. Palmer Press, London.
Ford, M. E. (1987). Processes contributing to adolescent social competence. In Ford, M. E., and Ford, D. H. (eds.), Humans as Self-Constructing Living Systems: Putting the Framework to Work. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hilsdale, NJ, pp. 199–234.
Gal, M. (1973). The military unit as a social group. Shdemot 50: 34–50. (Hebrew)
Gal, R. (1986). A Portrait of the Israeli Soldier. Greenwood, Westport, CT.
Greene, A. L., Wheatley, S. M., and Aldava, J. F. (1992). Stages on life's way: Adolescents' implicit theories of the life course. J. Adolesc. Res. 7: 364–381.
Grotevant, H. D. (1987). Toward a process model of identity formation. J. Adolesc. Res. 2: 203–222.
Hagan, J., and Wheaton, B. (1993). The search for adolescent role exits and the transition to adulthood. Soc. Forces 71: 955–980.
Halbertal, T., and Rapoport, T. (1998). To live with others: Adolescent girls in ‘Tomer’ group. In Dar, Y. (ed.), Education in the Changing Kibbutz: Sociological and Psychological Perspectives. Magnes, Jerusalem, pp. 206–224. (Hebrew)
Hogan, D. P., and Astone, N. M. (1986). The transition to adulthood. Ann. Rev. Sociol. 12: 109–158.
Horowitz, D., and Lissak, M. (1990). Out of Utopia. State University of New York Press, Albany, NY.
Hurrelmann, K. (1988a). The social world of adolescents: A sociological perspective. In Hurrelmann, K., and Engel, U. (eds.), The Social World of Adolescents: International Perspectives. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 3–26.
Hurrelmann, K. (1988b). Social Structure and Personality Development. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Israelshvili, M. (1992). A Sharp Turn. Ramot, Tel Aviv. (Hebrew)
Izraeli, D. N. (1997). Gendering military service in the Israel Defense Forces. Israel Soc. Sci. Res. 12: 129–166.
Kahane, R. (1975). Informal youth organizations: A general model. Sociol. Inq. 45: 17–28.
Kahane, R. (1997). The Origins of Postmodern Youth: Informal Youth Movements in Comparative Perspective. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.
Keniston, K. (1968). Young Radicals: Notes on Committed Youth. Harcourt, Brace and World, New York.
Keniston, K. (1970). Youth as a stage of life. Am. Schol. 39: 631–654.
Kimhi, S., and Bliwise, N. G. (1992). Perceived change of values and intention to return among Kibbutz people who emigrated from Israel. J. Psychol. 126: 661–670.
Klein, H. (1991). Adolescence, youth, and young adulthood: Rethinking current conceptualizations of life stage. Youth Soc. 21: 446–471.
Lamdan, A. (1992). The year off: A stage in the socialization process of kibbutz youth. Shorashim (Roots) 7: 167–196. (Hebrew)
Liebes, T., and Blum-Kulka, S. (1994). Managing a moral dilemma: Israeli soldiers in the Intifada. Armed Forces Soc. 27: 45–68.
Lieblich, A. (1989). Transition to Adulthood During Military Service. State University of New York Press, Albany NY.
Lomsky-Feder, E. (1995). The meaning of war through veterans' eyes: Phenomenological analysis of life stories. Int. Sociol. 10: 463–482.
Marcia, G. E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. In Adelson, J. (ed.), Handbook of Adolescence Psychology. Wiley, New York.
Marcia, G. E. (1993). The ego identity status approach to ego identity. In Marcia, G. E. (ed.), Ego Identity: Handbook of Psychosocial Research. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Marini, M. M. (1984). The order of events in the transition to adulthood in the United States. Social Forces 63: 229–244.
Mayseless, O. (1992). Perceptions of and Attitudes Toward the IDF and the State of Different Age Groups: Comparison Between Youth on the Verge of Conscription and Veterans. The Israeli Institute for Military Studies, Zichron Ya'akov. (Hebrew)
Mayseless, O., and Gal, R. (1990). Perceptions of and Attitudes Toward the Service in the IDF: Israeli Youth at the Time of the Intifada. The Israeli Institute for Military Studies, Zichron Ya'akov. (Hebrew)
Mayseless, O., and Hai, I. (1998). Leaving home transition in Israel: Changes in parent-adolescent relationships and adolescents' adaptation to military service. Int. J. Behav. Devel. 22: 589–609.
Meir, E., Hadas, C., and Noyfeld, M. (1997). Person-environment fit in small army units. J. Career Assessm. 5: 21–29.
Merton, K. R. (1957). Social Theory and Social Structure. Free Press, New York.
Nurmi, J. E. (1991). How do adolescents see their future? A review of the development of future orientation and planning. Devel. Rev. 11: 1–59.
Orr, E., and Dinur, B. (1993). Social setting effects on gender differences in self-esteem: Kibbutz and urban adolescents. J. Youth Adolesc. 24: 3–25.
Rapoport, T., and Kahane, R. (1988). Informal socialization agencies and role development. Sociol. Inq. 58: 49–74.
Seginer, R. (1998a). Adolescents' orientation toward the future: Sex role differentiation in a sociocultural context. Sex Roles J. Res. 18: 739–757.
Seginer, R. (1998b). Adolescents' future orientation in time and place: The case of the Israeli kibbutz. Int. J. Behav. Devel. 22: 151–167.
Seginer, R. (1999). Beyond the call of duty: The service of Israeli youth in military and civic contexts. In Yates, M., and Youniss, J. (eds.), Roots of Civic Identity: International Perspectives on Community Service and Activism in Youth. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Shirom, A. (1977). Interpersonal relationships in combat performance. Megamot (Behav. Sci. Q.) 23: 17–30. (Hebrew)
Sion, L. (1997). Images of Manhood Among Combat Soldiers: Military Service in the Israeli Infantry as Rite of Initiation From Youth to Adulthood. The Hebrew University, Jerusalem. ShaneWorking Papers No. 3. (Hebrew)
Solomon, Z. (1993). Combat Stress Reaction: The Enduring Tall of War. Plenum, New York.
Stouffer, S. A., Suchman, E. A., DeVinney, L. C., Star, S. A., and Williams, R. M., Jr. (1949). The American Soldier: Vol. 1. Adjustment During Army Life. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Syna-Desivilya, H., and Gal, R. (1992). Repeated War Experiences: The Case of Israeli Reservists. The Israeli Institute for Military Studies, Zichron Ya'akov.
Trommsdorff, G. (1986). Future orientation and socialization. Int. J. Psychol. 18: 381–406.
Weiseman, H., and Lieblich, A. (1992). Individuation in a collective community. Adolesc. Psychiatry 18: 156–179.
Yarom, N. (1983). Facing death in war: An existential crisis. In Breznitz, S. (ed.), Stress in Israel. Van Nostrand, New York, pp. 3–38.
Yerushalmi, H. (1997). A psychoanalytic perspective on late adolescence in men in an Israeli combat unit. Psychoanal. Psychol. 14: 113–127.
Yinon, Y., and Freedman, N. (1977). Why do kibbutz-born soldiers perform better than city-born in the Army? Megamot (Behav. Sci. Q.) 23: 110–118. (Hebrew)
Zamir, D. (1986). Kibbutz youth's changing attitude to military service. Oranim Institute for Kibbutz Education Research, Haifa. Research Paper No. 69. (Hebrew)