Symptom Properties as a Function of ADHD Type: An Argument for Continued Study of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Inconsistent alertness and orientation (sluggishness, drowsiness, daydreaming) were reported to accompany Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) without Hyperactivity in DSM-III. Such Sluggish Cognitive Tempo items were tested in the DSM-IV Field Trial for ADHD, but were discarded from the Inattention symptom list because of poor negative predictive power. Using 692 children referred to a pediatric subspecialty clinic for ADHD, Sluggish Tempo items were re-evaluated. When Hyperactivity–Impulsivity was absent (i.e., using only cases of Inattentive Type plus clinic controls), Sluggish Tempo items showed substantially improved utility as symptoms of Inattention. Factor analyses distinguished a Sluggish Tempo factor from an Inattention factor. When DSM-IV ADHD types were compared, Inattentive Type was uniquely elevated on Sluggish Tempo. These findings suggest that (a) Sluggish Tempo items are adequate symptoms for Inattentive Type, or (b) Sluggish Tempo may distinguish two subtypes of Inattentive Type. Either conclusion is incompatible with ADHD nosology in DSM-IV.
- Barkley, R. A., DuPaul, G. J., & McMurray, M. B. (1990). Comprehensive evalution of Attention Deficit Disorder with and without Hyperactivity as defined by research criteria. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58(6), 775–789.
- Bird, H. S., Gould, M. S., & Staghezza, B. (1992). Aggregating data from multiple informants in child psychiatry epidemiological research. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 78–85.
- Frick, P. J., Lahey, B. B., Applegate, B., Kerdyck, L., Ollendick, T., Hynd, G. W., Garfinkel, B., Greenhill, L., Biederman, J., Barkley, R. A., McBurnett, K., Newcorn, J., & Waldman, I. (1994). DSM-IV field trials for the disruptive behavior disorders: Symptom utility estimates. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33(4), 529–539.
- Hart, E. L., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., & Hanson, K. S. (1994). Criterion validity of informants in the diagnosis of disruptive behaviors in children: A preliminary study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(2), 410–414.
- Hynd, G.W., Lorys, A. R., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Nieves, N., Huettner, M. I. S., & Lahey, B. B. (1991). Attention Deficit Disorder without Hyperactivity (ADD/WO): A distinct behavioral and neurocognitive syndrome. Journal of Child Neurology, 6, 37–43.
- Lahey, B. B., Applegate, B., McBurnett, K., Biederman, J., Greenhill, L., Hynd, G. W., Barkley, R. A., Newcorn, J., Jensen, P., Richters, J., Garfinkel, B., Kerdyk, L., Frick, P. J., Ollendick, T., Perez, D., Hart, E. L., Waldman, I., & Shaffer, D. (1994). DSM-IV Field Trials for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(11), 1673–1685.
- Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Schaughency, E. A., Atkins, M. S., Murphy, H. A., Hynd, G. W., Russo, M., Hartdagen, S., & Lorys-Vernon, A. (1988). Dimensions and types of attention deficit disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 330–335.
- Lahey, B. B., Schaughency, E. A., Frame, C. L., & Strauss, C. C. (1985). Teacher ratings of attention problems in children experimentally classified as exhibiting Attention Deficit Disorder with and without Hyperactivity. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24(5), 613–616.
- Lahey, B. B., Schaughency, E. A., Hynd, G. W., Carlson, C. L., & Piacentini, J. C. (1987). Attention Deficit Disorder with and without Hyperactivity: Comparison of behavioral characteristics of clinicreferred children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26(5), 718–723.
- Lahey, B. B., Schaughency, E. A., Strauss, C. C., & Frame, C. L. (1984). Are Attention Deficit Disorders with and without Hyperactivity similar or disimilar disorders? Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23(3), 302–309.
- Loeber, R., Green, S. M., & Lahey, B. B. (1990). Mental health professionals' perception of the utility of children, mothers, and teachers as informants on childhood psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19, 136–143.
- Loeber, R., Green, S. M., Lahey, B. B.,& Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1990). Optimal informants on child disruptive behavior disorders. Developmental Psychopathology, 1, 317–337.
- McBurnett, K., Pfiffner, L. J., & Ottolini, Y. L. (2000). Types of ADHD in DSM-IV. In P. J. Accardo, T. A. Blondis, B. A. Whitman, & M. A. Stein (Eds.), Attention deficits and hyperactivity in children and adults: Diagnosis, treatment, management (2nd ed., pp. 229–239). New York: Marcel Dekker.
- McBurnett, K., Pfiffner, L. J., Willcutt, E., Tamm, L., Lerner, M., Ottolini, Y. L., & Furman, M. B. (1999). Experimental cross-validation of DSM-IV Types of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(1), 17–24.
- Swanson, J. M. (1992). School-based assessments and interventions for ADD students. Irvine, CA: K. C. Publishing.
- Task Force on DSM-IV. (1991). DSM-IV options book:Work in progress, 9–1–91. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
- Task Force on DSM-IV. (1993). DSM-IV draft criteria, 3–1–93. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
- West, S. G., Finch, J. F., & Curran, P. J. (1995). Structural equation models with nonnormal variables: Problems and remedies. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 56–75). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Symptom Properties as a Function of ADHD Type: An Argument for Continued Study of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Volume 29, Issue 3 , pp 207-213
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
- attention problems
- diagnostic categories
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Psychiatry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 60637
- 2. Hyperactivity, Attention, and Learning Problems Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 60637
- 3. Applied Developmental Program, Department of Psychology, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, Los Angeles, 70148