, Volume 66, Issue 5, pp 476-489

Oxidative Stress and Mechanisms of Protection Against It in Bacteria

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Abstract

In the review contemporary data on the effects of oxidative stresses of various kinds in bacteria are summarized. A general theory of oxidative stress, peculiarities of oxidative stress in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and natural and induced oxidative stresses are described. Data on the mechanisms of protection against oxidative stress are given, including prevention of the generation of oxidative stress, prevention of propagation of free radical chain reactions, and the mechanisms of repair of damaged DNA. The regulation of effector genes via redox-sensitive iron-containing proteins is analyzed. Special attention is given to the expression of so-called antioxidant and associated enzymes as protection mechanisms and to the space–time organization of the response of bacteria to oxidative stress.