Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 219–257

FLAME—Fuzzy Logic Adaptive Model of Emotions

  • Magy Seif El-Nasr
  • John Yen
  • Thomas R. Ioerger

DOI: 10.1023/A:1010030809960

Cite this article as:
El-Nasr, M.S., Yen, J. & Ioerger, T.R. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (2000) 3: 219. doi:10.1023/A:1010030809960


Emotions are an important aspect of human intelligence and have been shown to play a significant role in the human decision-making process. Researchers in areas such as cognitive science, philosophy, and artificial intelligence have proposed a variety of models of emotions. Most of the previous models focus on an agent's reactive behavior, for which they often generate emotions according to static rules or pre-determined domain knowledge. However, throughout the history of research on emotions, memory and experience have been emphasized to have a major influence on the emotional process. In this paper, we propose a new computational model of emotions that can be incorporated into intelligent agents and other complex, interactive programs. The model uses a fuzzy-logic representation to map events and observations to emotional states. The model also includes several inductive learning algorithms for learning patterns of events, associations among objects, and expectations. We demonstrate empirically through a computer simulation of a pet that the adaptive components of the model are crucial to users' assessments of the believability of the agent's interactions.

emotionsemotional agentssocial agentsbelievable agentslife-like agents

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Magy Seif El-Nasr
    • 1
  • John Yen
    • 2
  • Thomas R. Ioerger
    • 3
  1. 1.The Institute of Learning SciencesNorthwestern UniversityEvanston
  2. 2.Computer Science DepartmentTexas A&M University, College Station
  3. 3.Computer Science DepartmentTexas A&M University, College Station