Fuller HD. The validity of cardiac output measurement by thoracic impedance: A metaanalysis. Clin Investiga-tiveMed 1992; 15: 103 112.
Bland JM, Altman DG. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measure-ment. Lancet 1986; 1: 307 310.
Espersen K, Jensen EW, Rosenborg D, Thomsen JK, Eliasen K, Olsen NV, Kanstrup IL. Comparison of car-diac output measurement techniques: Thermodilution, Doppler, CO2-rebreathing and the direct Fick method. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1995; 39: 245 251.
Froese N, Friesen R. Measurement of cardiac output transtracheal Doppler versus thermodilution. Canadian J Anaesth 1991; 38: 931 934.
Salandin V, Zussa C, Risica G, Michielon P, Paccagnella A, Cipolotti G, Simini G. Comparison of cardiac output estimation by thoracic electrical bioimpedance, thermo-dilution, and Fick methods. Crit Care Med 1988; 16: 1157 1158.
Gotshall RW, Wood VC, Miles DS. Comparison of two impedance cardiographic techniques for measuring car-diac output in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 1989; 17: 806 811.
Clancy TV, Norman K, Reynolds R, Covington D, Maxwell JG. Cardiac output measurement in critical care patients: Thoracic Electrical Bioimpedance versus ther-modilution. J Trauma 1991; 31: 1116 1120.
Northridge DB, Findlay IN, Wilson J, Henderson E, Dargie HJ. Non-invasive determination of cardiac out-put by Doppler echocardiography and electrical bioim-pedance. Br Heart J 1990; 63: 93 97.
Spinale FG, Smith AC, Crawford FA. Relationship of bioimpedance to thermodilution and echocardiographic measurements of cardiac function. Crit Care Med 1990; 18: 414 418.
Wong DH, Tremper KK, Stemmer EA, O'Connor D, Wilbur S, Zaccari J, Reeves C, Weido¡ P, Trujillo RJ. Noninvasive cardiac output: Simultaneous comparison of two di¡erent methods with thermodilution. Anes-thesiology 1990; 72: 784 792.
Jewkes C, Sear JW, Verhoe¡ F, Sanders DJ, Foex P. Non-invasive measurement of cardiac output by thoracic elec-trical bioimpedance: A study of reproducibility and comparison with thermodilution. Br J Anaesth 1991; 67: 788 794.
O'Connell AJ, Tibballs J, Coulthard M. Improving agreement between thoracic bioimpedance and dye dilu-tion cardiac output estimation in children. Anaesth In-tensive Care 1991; 19: 434 440.
Siegel LC, Fitzgerald DC, Engstrom RH. Simultaneous intraoperative measurement of cardiac output by ther-modilution and transtracheal Doppler. Anesthesiology 1991; 74: 664 669.
Thomas AN, Ryan J, Doran BR, Pollard BJ. Bioimpe-dance versus thermodilution cardiac output measure-ment: The BoMed NCCOM3 after coronary bypass surgery. Intensive CareMed 1991; 17: 383 386.
Ryan T, Page R, Bouchier-Hayes D, Cunningham AJ. Transoesophageal pulsed wave Doppler measurement of cardiac output during major vascular surgery: compar-ison with the thermodilution technique. Br J Anaesth 1992; 69: 101 104.
Tibballs J, Hochmann M, Osborne A, Carter B. Accu-racy of the BoMED NCCOM3 bioimpedance cardiac output monitor during induced hypotension: An exper-imental study in dogs. Anaesth Intensive Care 1992; 20: 326 331.
Sageman WS, Amundson DE. Thoracic electrical bio-impedance measurement of cardiac output in post-aortocoronary bypass patients. Crit Care Med 1993; 21: 1139 1142.
Young JD, McQuillan P. Comparison of thoracic elec-trical bioimpedance and thermodilution for the measure-ment of cardiac index in patients with severe sepsis. Br J Anaesth 1993; 70: 58 62.
Castor G, Klocke RK, Stoll M, Helms J, Niedermark I. Simultaneous measurement of cardiac output by thermo-dilution, thoracic electrical bioimpedance and Doppler ultrasound. Br J Anaesth 1994; 72: 133 138.
Perrino AC, O'Connor T, Luther M. Transtracheal 90 Journal of ClinicalMonitoring and Computing Vol 15 No 2 February 1999 Doppler cardiac output monitoring: Comparison to thermodilution during noncardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 1994; 78: 1060 1066.
Shoemaker WC, Wo CC, Bishop MH, Appel PL, Van de Water JM, Harrington GR, Wang X. Patil RS. Multi-center trial of a new thoracic electrical bioimpedance device for cardiac output estimation. Crit Care Med 1994; 22: 1907 1912.
Atallah MM, Demain AD. Cardiac output measurement: Lack of agreement between thermodilution and thoracic electric bioimpedance in two clinical settings. J Clin Anesth 1995; 7: 182 185.
Keyl C, Rodig G, Lemberger P, Hobbhahn J. A compar-ison of the use of transoesophageal Doppler and thermo-dilution techniques for cardiac output determination. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1996; 13: 136 142.
Pianosi PT, Garros D. Comparison of impedance cardi-ography with indirect Fick (CO2) method of measuring cardiac output in healthy children during exercise. Am J Cardiol 1996; 77: 745 749.
Young LE, Blissitt KJ, Bartram DH, Clutton RE, Molony V, Jones RS. Measurement of cardiac output by transoesophageal Doppler echocardiography in anaesthe-tized horses: Comparison with thermodilution. Br J Anaesth 1996; 77: 773 780.
Broomhead CJ, Wright SJ, Ki¡ KM, Withington PS. Validation of thoracic electrical bioimpedance as a por-cine research tool. Br J Anaesth 1997; 78: 323 325.
Pianosi PT. Impedance cardiography accurately measures cardiac output during exercise in children with cystic ¢brosis. Chest 1997; 111: 333 337.
Stetz CW, Miller RG, Kelly GE, Ra¤n TA. Reliability of the thermodilution method in the determination of cardiac output in clinical practice. Am Rev Respirat Dis 1982; 126: 1001 1004.
LaMantia KR, O'Connor T, Barash PG. Comparing methods of measurement: An alternative approach. Anes-thesiology 1990; 72: 781 783.
Mackenzie JD, Haites NE, Rawles JM. Method of assessing the reproducibility of blood £ow measurement: Factors in£uencing the performance of thermodilution cardiac output computers. Br Heart J 1986; 55: 14 24.
Ng HW, Walley TJ, Mostafa SM. Comparison of ther-modilution, thoracic bioimpedance and Doppler ultra-sound cardiac output measurement. Br J Anaesth 1994; 73: 119 120.
Critchley LA, Critchley JA. Lung £uid and impedance cardiography. Anaesthesia 1988; 53: 369 372.
Critchley LA. Impedance cardiography: Impact of new technology. Anaesthesia 1988; 53: 677 685.