, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 347–367

Sources of mortality in colonies of brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida

  • J.P. Michaud

DOI: 10.1023/A:1009955816396

Cite this article as:
Michaud, J. BioControl (1999) 44: 347. doi:10.1023/A:1009955816396


Sixteen cohorts of the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida, were followed from colony initiation to maturation/extinction in citrus groves at two sites in Puerto Rico and nine sites in Florida, USA. Infested citrus terminals were sampled repeatedly in a non-destructive manner and data recorded on the recruitment of natural enemies and the fate of aphid colonies. Coccinellidae were the most efficient predators of T. citricida, primarily Cycloneda sanguinea, and Coelophora inaequalis (Puerto Rico), C. sanguinea, Harmonia axyridis (Florida). Coccinellids were abundant in citrus year-round in Puerto Rico, but in Florida citrus their abundance peaked in spring and declined thereafter. Syrphid flies were other important predators, especially Pseudodorus clavatus (Florida and Puerto Rico) and Ocyptamus fuscipennis (Puerto Rico). Syrphids increased in abundance from spring to fall in both regions. Other predators included Cereaochrysa lineaticornis, Chrysoperla rufilabris (Chrysopidae) and Micromus posticus (Hemerobiidae). The parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes was ubiquitous in T. citricida cohorts, but its impact on colony survival was usually low. The fungal pathogen Verticillium lecanii was a significant source of colony mortality at one site in Puerto Rico, but was not observed on T. citricida in Florida.

Aphidiidaebiological controlChrysopidaeCoccinellidaeentomopathogensHemerobiidaeSyrphidae

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • J.P. Michaud
    • 1
  1. 1.Citrus Research & Education CenterUniversity of FloridaLake AlfredUSA