Drag force due to vegetation in mangrove swamps
Field studies of tidal flows in largely pristine mangrove swamps suggestthat the momentum equation simplifies to a balance between the water surfaceslope and the drag force. The controlling parameter is the vegetation lengthscale LE, which is a function of the projected area ofmangrove vegetation and the volume of the vegetation. The value ofLE varies greatly with mangrove species and water depth. It isfound that the drag coefficient is related to the Reynolds number Re definedusing LE. The drag coefficient decreases with increasingvalues of Re from a maximum value of 10 at low value of Re (<104), and converges towards 0.4 for Re < 5 ×104.