Foundations of Chemistry

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 237–263

Numerical Classification of the Chemical Elements and Its Relation to the Periodic System

  • P.H.A. Sneath

DOI: 10.1023/A:1009933705492

Cite this article as:
Sneath, P. Foundations of Chemistry (2000) 2: 237. doi:10.1023/A:1009933705492


A numerical classification was performed on 69 elements with 54 chemicaland physicochemical properties. The elements fell into clusters in closeaccord with the electron shell s-, p- andd-blocks. The f-block elements were not included forlack of sufficiently complete data. The successive periods ofs- and p-block elements appeared in an ovalconfiguration, with d-block elements lying to one side. Morethan three axes were required to give good representation of thevariation, although the interpretation of the higher axes is difficult.Only 15 properties were scorable for the noble gases, but despite thepaucity of properties reflecting chemical reactivity, analysis of the 69elements on these properties still showed the major features seen fromthe full set.

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • P.H.A. Sneath
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterU.K.