Influence of nitrogen nutrition and metabolism on ammonia volatilization in plants
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Golf) was grown in solution culture with controlled nitrogen availability in order to study the influence of nitrogen nutrition on ammonia emission from the leaves. Ammonia emission measured in cuvettes connected to an automatic NH3 monitor was close to zero for nitrate grown plants but increased to 0.9–1.3 nmol NH3 m-2 leaf area s-1 after 3–5 days of ammonium nutrition. Increasing concentrations from 0.5 to 10 mM NH4 + in the root medium increased NH3 emission from the shoots, root glutamine synthetase activity and NH4 + concentrations in apoplast, xylem sap and bulk tissue, while apoplastic pH values decreased.
Inhibition of glutamine synthetase in nitrate grown barley plants by addition of 1 mM methionine sulfoximine (MSO) to the root medium caused ammonia emission to increase 5 to 10-fold after 2–3 hours. At the same time shoot tissue ammonium concentrations started to increase. Addition of an inhibitor of photorespiration, 1 mM pyrid-2-yl hydroxymethane sulfonate (HPMS) reduced this increase in ammonia emission showing a relation between NH3 emission and photorespiration.
Oil seed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Global) plants grown at 3 different nitogen levels (2N, 4N and 7N) in a sand/soil mixture showed increasing NH3 compensation points with increasing N level. This increase was highly correlated with increasing NH4 + concentrations in the leaf apoplast and total leaf tissue. The NH3 compensation points could be succesfully predicted on basis of the pH and NH4 + concentration in the leaf apoplast.
- Dannel F, Pfeffer H and Marschner H(1995) Isolation of apoplasmic fluid from sunflower leaves and its use for studies on influence of nitrogen supply on apoplasmic pH. J Plant Physiol 146: 273–278
- Farquhar GD, Firth PM, Wetselaar R and Weir B (1980) On the gaseous exchange of ammonia between leaves and the environment: Determination of the ammonia compensation point. Plant Physiol 66: 710–714.
- Fentem PA, Lea PJ and Stewart GR (1983) Action of inhibitors of ammonia assimilation on amino acid metabolism in Hordeum vulgareL. (cv Golden Promise). Plant Physiol 71: 502–506.
- Hoffmann B, Planker R and Mengel K (1992) Measurement of pH in the apoplast of sunflower leaves by fluoresence. Physiol Plant 84: 146–153
- Husted S and Schjoerring J K(1995a) A computer–controlled system for studying ammonia exchange, photosynthesis and transpiration of plant canopies growing under controlled environmental conditions. Plant Cell Environ 18: 1070–1077.
- Husted S and Schjoerring JK(1995b) Apoplastic pH and ammonium concentration in leaves of Brassica napusL. Plant Physiol 109: 1453–1460
- Joy KW (1988) Ammonia, glutamine and asparagine: A carbon–nitrogen interface. Can J Bot 66: 2103–2109.
- Lea PJ, Blackwell RB, Chen F–L and Hecht U (1990) Enzymes of ammonia assimilation. In: Lea PJ (ed ) Methods in plant biochemistry Vol. 3, pp 257–276 Academic press New York.
- Lea PJ (1991) The inhibition of ammonia assimilation: a mechanism of herbicide action. In: Baker NR and Percival MP (ed) Herbicides, pp 267–298 Elsevier Science Publishers BV
- Lea PJ Blackwell RB and Joy KW (1992) Ammonia assimilation in higher plants. In: Mengel K and Pilbeam DJ (ed) Nitrogen Metabolism of Plants. pp 153–186 Oxford Scientific Publishers. New York.
- Leegood RC, Lea PJ, Adcock MD and Häusler RE (1995) The regulation and control of photorespiration. J Exp Bot 46: 1397– 1414
- Lewis OAM, Lamas DM and Hewitt EJ (1992) Nitrogen assimilation in barley (Hordeum vulgareL. cv Mazurka) in response to nitrate and ammonium nutrition. Ann Bot 49: 39–49
- Maheswari M, Nair TVR and Abrol YP (1988) Ammonia accumulation and glutamine synthetase activity in C3 and C4 plants. Proc Indian Acad Sci 98: 199–204
- Martin F, Winspear MJ, MacFarlane JD and Oaks A (1983) Effects of methionine sulfoximine on the accumulation of ammonium in C3 and C4 leaves. Plant Physiol 71: 177–181
- Mattsson M, Johansson E, Lundborg T, Larsson M and Larsson CM (1991) Nitrogen utilization in N–limited barley during vegetative and generative growth. I. Growth and nitrate uptake kinetics in vegetative cultivars grown at different relative addition rates. J Exp Bot 42: 197–205.
- Mattsson M and Schjoerring JK (1996) Ammonia emission from young barley plants: influence of N source, light/dark cycles and inhibition of glutamine synthetase J Exp Bot 47: 477–484
- Mühling KH and Sattelmacher B (1995) Apoplastic ion concentration of intact leaves of field bean (Vicea faba) as influenced by ammonium and nitrate nutrition. J Plant Physiol 147: 81–86
- Mäck G (1995) Organ–specific changes in the activity and subunit composition of glutamine–synthetase isoforms of barley (Hordeum vulgareL.) after growth on different levels of NH4 +. Planta 196: 231–238.
- Olsen C, Mattsson M and Schjoerring JK (1995) Nitrogen nutrition, photosynthesis and ammonia volatilization in young Brassica napusplants growing with controlled nitrogen supply. J Plant Physiol 147: 306–312
- Parton WJ, Morgan JA, Altenhofen JM and Harper LA (1988) Ammonia volatilization from spring wheat plants. Agron J 80: 419–425
- Platt SG and Anthon GE (1981) Ammonia accumulation and inhibition of photosynthesis in methionine sulphoximine treated spinach. Plant Physiol 67: 509–513.
- Raab TK and Terry N (1995) Carbon, nitrogen, and nutrient interactions in Beta vulgarisL. as influenced by nitrogen source NO3-versus NH4+. Plant Physiol 107: 575–584.
- Schjoerring JK (1991) Ammonia emission from the foliage of growing plants. In: Sharkey TD, Holland EA and Mooney HA (eds) Trace gas emissions by plants pp 267–292 New York Academic Press
- Schjoerring JK Kyllingsbaeck A Mortensen JV and Byskov–Nielsen S (1993) Field investigations of ammonia exchange between barley plants and the atmosphere. I. Concentration profiles and flux densities of ammonia. Plant Cell Environ., 16, 161–167.
- Sutton MA, Pitcairn CER and Fowler D (1993) The exchange of ammonia between the atmosphere and plant communities. Adv Ecol Res 24: 301–393
- Sutton MA, Asman WAH and Schjoerring JK (1994) Dry deposition of reduced nitrogen. Tellus 46B: 255–273
- Tobin AK, Sumar N, Patel M, Moore AL and Stewart GR (1988) Development of photorespiration during chloroplast biogenesis in wheat leaves. J Exp Bot 39: 833–843
- Walker K.A., Keys A.J. and Curtis V.G., 1984. Effect of Lmethionine sulphoximine on the products of photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves. J Exp. Bot., 35, 1800–1810.
- Wyers G.P. Otjes R.P. and Slanina J., 1993. A continuous–flow denuder for the measurement of ambient concentrations and surface–exchange fluxes of ammonia. Atmos Environ, 27A(13), 2085–2090.
- Influence of nitrogen nutrition and metabolism on ammonia volatilization in plants
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems
Volume 51, Issue 1 , pp 35-40
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- ammonia emission
- Brassica napus
- compensation point
- glutamine synthetase
- Hordeum vulgare