, Volume 136, Issue 2, pp 229-248

Daily and seasonal CO2 exchange in Scots pine grown under elevated O3 and CO2: experiment and simulation

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Abstract

Starting in early spring of 1994, naturally regenerated, 30-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees were grown in open-top chambers and exposed in situ to doubled ambient O3,doubled ambient CO2 and a combination of O3 and CO2 from 15 April to 15 September. To investigate daily and seasonal responses of CO2 exchange to elevated O3 and CO2, the CO2 exchange of shoots was measured continuously by an automatic system for measuring gas exchange during the course of one year (from 1 Januray to 31 December 1996). A process-based model of shoot photosynthesis was constructed to quantify modifications in the intrinsic capacity of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance by simulating the daily CO2 exchange data from the field. Results showed that on most days of the year the model simulated well the daily course of shoot photosynthesis. Elevated O3 significantly decreased photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance during the whole photosynthetic period. Elevated O3 also led to a delay in onset of photosynthetic recovery in early spring and an increase in the sensitivity of photosynthesis to environmental stress conditions. The combination of elevated O3 and CO2 had an effect on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance similar to that of elevated O3 alone, but significantly reduced the O3-induced depression of photosynthesis. Elevated CO2 significantly increased the photosynthetic capacity of Scots pine during the main growing season but slightly decreased it in early spring and late autumn. The model calculation showed that, compared to the control treatment, elevated O3 alone and the combination of elevated O3 and CO2 decreased the annual total of net photosynthesis per unit leaf area by 55% and 38%, respectively. Elevated CO2 increased the annual total of net photosynthesis by 13%.