M. Barbacid (1987). Ras genes. Ann. Rev. Biochem.
M. Boguski and F. McCormick (1993). Proteins regulating ras and its relatives. Nature
L. van Aelst and C. D'souza-Schorey (1997). Rho GTPases and signaling networks. Genes Dev.
G. Reuther and C. Der (2000). The Ras branch of small GTPases: Ras family members don't fall far from the tree. Curr. Opinion Cell Biol.
G. Clark, M. Kinch, T. Gilmer, K. Burridge, and C. Der (1996). Overexpression of the Ras-related TC21/R-Ras2 protein may contribute to the development of human breast cancers. Oncogene
K. Barker and M. Crompton (1998). Ras-related TC21 is activated by mutation in a breast cancer cell line, but infrequently in breast carcinomas in vivo. Brit. J. Cancer
T. Pawson (1995). Protein modules and signaling networks. Nature
A. Migliaccio, M. Di Domenico, G. Castoria, A. de Falco, P. Bontempo, E. Nola, and F. Auricchio (1996). Tyrosine kinase/p21ras/MAP-kinase pathway activation by estradiolreceptor complex in MCF-7 cells. EMBO J.
S. Campbell, R. Khosravi-Far, K. Rossman, G. Clark, and C. Der (1998). Increasing complexity of Ras signaling. Oncogene
R. Seger and E. Krebs (1995). The MAPK signaling cascade. FASEB J.
M. P. Scheid and J. R. Woodgett (2000). Phosphatidylinositol 3′ kinase signaling in mammary tumorigenesis. J. Mam. Gland Biol. Neoplasia 6(1) xx–xx.
J. L. Bos (1989). Ras oncogenes in human cancer: A review. Cancer Res.
S. Miyakis, G. Sourvinos, and D. Spandidos (1998). Differential expression and mutation of the ras family genes inhumanbreast cancer. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
M. Kraus, Y. Yuasa, and S. Aaronson (1984). A position 12-activated H-ras oncogene in all HS578T mammary carcinosarcoma cells but not normal mammary cells of the same patient. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81:5384–5388.
S. Kozma, M. Bogaard, K. Buser, S. Saurer, J. Bos, B. Groner, and N. Hynes (1987). The human c-Kirsten ras gene is activated by a novel mutation in codon 13 in the breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231. Nucleic Acids Res.
D. Watson, R. Elton, W. Jack, J. Dixon, U. Chetty, and W. Miller (1990). The H-ras oncogene product p21 and prognosis in human breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
C. Dati, R. Muraca, O. Tazartes, S. Antoniotti, I. Perroteau, M. Giai, P. Cortese, P. Sismondi, G. Saglio, and M. De Bertoli (1991). c-erbB-2 and ras expression levels in breast cancer are correlated and show a co-operative association with unfavorable clinical outcome. Int. J. Cancer
U.-J. Gohring, T. Schondorf, V. Kiecker, M. Becker, C. Kurbacher, and A. Scharl (1999). Immunohistochemical detection of H-ras protooncoprotein p21 indicates favorable prognosis in node-negative breast cancer patients. Tumor Biol.
A. Schnelzer, D. Prechtel, U. Knaus, K. Dehne, M. Gerhard, H. Graeff, N. Harbeck, M. Schmitt, and E. Lengyel (2000). Rac1 in human breast cancer: Overexpression, mutation analysis, and characterization of a new isoform, Rac1b. Oncogene
K. L. Troyer and D. C. Lee (2001). Regulation of mouse mammary gland development and tumorigenesis by the ERBB Signaling network. J. Mam. Gland Biol. Neoplasia 6(1) xx-xx.
J. R. Sainsbury, J. R. Farndon, G. K. Needham, A. J. Malcolm, and A. L. Harris (1987). Epidermal-growth-factor receptor status as predictor of early recurrence of and death from breast cancer. Lancet
D. J. Slamon, W. Godolphin, L. A. Jones, J.A. Holt, S.G. Wong, D. E. Keith, W. J. Levin, S. G. Stuart, J. Udove, A. Ullrich, and M. F. Press (1989). Studies of the HER2/neu proto-oncogene in human breast and ovarian cancer. Science
P.W. Janes, R. J. Daly, A. deFazio, and R. L. Sutherland (1994). Activation of the Ras signaling pathway in human breast cancer cell lines overexpressing erbB-2. Oncogene
V. Papa, V. Pezzino, A. Costantino, A. Belfiore, D. Giuffrida, L. Frittitta, G. Vannelli, R. Brand, I. Goldfine, and R. Vigneri (1990). Elevated insulin receptor content in human breast cancer. J. Clin. Invest.
J. Resnik, D. Riechart, K. Huey, N. Webster, and B. Seely (1998). Elevated insulin-like growth factor I receptor autophosphorylation and kinase activity in human breast cancer. Cancer Res.
A. E. Ottenhoff-Kalff, G. Rijksen, E. A. C. M. van Beurden, A. Hennipman, A. A. Michels, and G. E. J. Staal (1992). Characterization of protein tyrosine kinases from human breast cancer: Involvement of the c-src oncogene product. Cancer Res.
R. Kairouz, and R. Daly (2000). Modulation of tyrosine kinase signaling in breast cancer through altered expression of signaling intermediates. Breast Cancer Res.
R. J. Daly, M. D. Binder, and R. L. Sutherland (1994). Overexpression of the Grb2 gene in human breast cancer cell lines. Oncogene
B. Verbeek, S. Adriaansen-Slot, G. Rijksen, and T. Vroom (1997). Grb2 overexpression in nuclei and cytoplasm of human breast cells: A histochemical and biochemical study of normal and neoplastic mammary tissue specimens. J. Pathol.
S. Yip, A. Crew, J. Gee, R. Hui, R. Blamey, J. Robertson, R. Nicholson, R. Sutherland, and R. Daly (2000). Upregulation of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in human breast cancer and correlation with GRB2 expression. Int. J. Cancer
E. Y. Skolnik, A. Batzer, N. Li, C.-H. Lee, E. Lowenstein, M. Mohammadi, B. Margolis, and J. Schlessinger (1993). The function of GRB2 in linking the insulin receptor to ras signaling pathways. Science
N. W. Gale, S. Kaplan, E. J. Lowenstein, J. Schlessinger, and D. Bar-Sagi (1993). Grb2 mediates the EGF-dependent activation of guanine nucleotide exchange on ras. Nature
K. L. Suen, X. R. Bustelo, T. Pawson, and M. Barbacid (1993). Molecular cloning of the mouse grb2 gene: Differential expression of the Grb2 adaptor protein with epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor receptors. Mol. Cell. Biol.
M. Rauh, V. Blackmore, E. Andrechek, C. Tortorice, R. Daly, V. Lai, T. Pawson, R. Cardiff, P. Siegel, and W. Muller (1999). Accelerated mammary tumor development in mutant polyomavirus middle T transgenic mice expressing elevated levels of either the Shc or Grb2 adapter protein. Mol. Cell. Biol.
V. Sivaraman, H. Wang, G. Nuovo, and C. Malbon (1997). Hyperexpression of mitogen-activated protein kinase in human breast cancer. J. Clin. Invest.
C. Wang, A. Thor, D. Moore, Y. Zhao, R. Kerschmann, R. Stern, P. Watson, and E. Turley (1998). The overexpression of RHAMM, a hyaluronan-binding protein that regulates Ras signaling, correlates with overexpression of mitogen-activated protein kinase and is a significant parameter in breast cancer progression. Clin. Cancer Res.
S. Redmond, E. Reichmann, R. Muller, R. Friis, B. Groner, and N. Hynes (1988). The transformation of primary and established mouse mammary epithelial cells by p21-ras is concentration dependent. Oncogene
W. Gunzberg, B. Salmons, A. Schlaeffli, S. Moritz-Legrand, W. Jones, N. Sarkar, and R. Ullrich (1988). Expression of the oncogenes mil and ras abolishes the in vivo differentiation of mammary epithelial cells. Carcinogenesis
R. Clark, M. Stampfer, R. Milley, E. O'Rourke, K. Walen, M. Kriegler, J. Kopplin, and F. McCormick (1988). Transformation of human mammary epithelial cells by oncogenic retroviruses. Cancer Res.
J. Ochieng, F. Basolo, A. Albini, A. Melchiori, H. Watanabe, J. Elliott, A. Raz, S. Parodi, and J. Russo (1991). Increased invasive, chemotactic, and locomotive abilities of c-Ha-rastransformed human breast epithelial cells. Invasion and metastasis
F. Ciardiello, M. Gottardis, F. Basolo, S. Pepe, N. Normanno, R. Dickson, A. Bianco, and D. Salomon (1992). Additive effects of c-erbB-2, c-Ha-ras, and transforming growth factor-alpha genes on in vitro transformation of human mammary epithelial cells. Mol. Carcinogenesis
S. Sukumar, W. Carney, and M. Barbacid (1988). Independent molecular pathways in initiation and loss of hormone responsiveness of breast carcinomas. Science
C. Sommers, A. Papageorge, G. Wilding, and E. Gelmann (1990). Growth properties and tumorigenesis of MCF-7 cells transfected with isogenic mutants of rasH. Cancer Res.
D. El-Ashry, D. Miller, S. Kharbanda, M. Lippman, and F. Kern (1997). Constitutive Raf-1 kinase activity in breast cancer cells induces both estrogen-independent growth and apoptosis. Oncogene
A. Tremblay, G. Tremblay, F. Labrie, and V. Giguere (1999). Ligand-independent recruitment of SRC-1 to estrogen receptor beta through phosphorylation of activation function AF-1. Mol. Cell
J. Font de Mora and M. Brown (2000). AIB1 is a conduit for kinase-mediated growth factor signaling to the estrogen receptor. Mol. Cell. Biol.
A. Coutts and L. Murphy (1998). Elevated mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in estrogen-nonresponsivehumanbreast cancer cells. Cancer Res.
E. Sinn, W. Muller, P. Pattengale, I. Tepler, R. Wallace, and P. Leder (1987). Coexpression of MMTV/v-Ha-ras and MMTV/c-myc genes in transgenic mice: Synergistic action of oncogenes in vivo. Cell
A. Andres, C. Schonenberger, B. Groner, L. Henninghausen, M. LeMeur, and P. Gerlinger (1987). Ha-ras oncogene expression directed by a milk protein gene promoter: Tissue specificity, hormonal regulation, and tumor induction in transgenic mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84:1299–1303.
A. Andres, O. Bchini, B. Schubaur, B. Dolder, M. LeMeur, and P. Gerlinger (1991). H-ras induced transformation of mammary epithelium is favored by increased oncogene expression or by inhibition of mammary regression. Oncogene
L. Nielsen, C. Discafani, M. Gurnani, and R. Tyler (1991). Histopathology of salivary and mammary gland tumors in transgenic mice expressing a human Ha-ras oncogene. Cancer Res.
H. Zarbl, S. Sukumar, A. Arthur, D. Martin-Zanca, and M. Barbacid (1985). Direct mutagenesis of Ha-ras-1 oncogenes by N-nitroso-N-methylurea during initiation of mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Nature
C. Schoenenberger, A.-C. Andres, B. Groner, M. van der Valk, M. LeMeur, and P. Gerlinger (1988). Targeted c-myc gene expression in mammary glands of transgenic mice induces mammary tumors with constitutive milk protein gene transcription. EMBO J.
P. Tremblay, F. Pothier, T. Hoang, G. Tremblay, S. Brownstein, A. Liszaur, and P. Jolicoeur (1989). Transgenic mice carrying the mouse mammary tumor virus ras fusion gene: Distinct effects in various tissues. Mol. Cell. Biol.
J. Irigoyen, D. Besser, and Y. Nagamine (1997). Cytoskeleton reorganization induces the urokinase-type plasminogen activator gene via the Ras/Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. J. Biol. Chem.
E. Lengyel, H. Wang, R. Gum, C. Simon, Y. Wang, and D. Boyd (1997). Elevated urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor expression in a colon cancer cell line is due to a constitutively activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1-dependent signaling cascade. Oncogene
J. Ye, R. Xu, J. Taylor-Papadimitriou, and P. Pitha (1996). Sp1 binding plays a critical role in Erb-B2-and v-ras-mediated downregulation of α2-integrin expression in human mammary epithelial cells. Mol. Cell. Biol.
C. T. Guy, M. A. Webster, M. Schaller, T. J. Parson, R. D. Cardiff, and W. J. Muller (1992). Expression of the neu proto-oncogene in the mammary epithelium of transgenic mice induces metastatic disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89:10578–10582.
C. T. Guy, R. D. Cardiff, and W. J. Muller (1992). Induction of mammary tumors by expression of polyomavirus middle T oncogene: A transgenic mouse model for metastatic disease. Mol. Cell. Biol.
R. Ben-Levy, H. F. Paterson, C. J. Marshall, and Y. Yarden (1994). A single autophosphorylation site confers oncogenicity to the Neu/erbB-2 receptor and enables coupling to the MAP kinase pathway. EMBO J.
D. Dankort, Z. Wang, V. Blackmore, M. Moran, and W. Muller (1997). Distinct tyrosine autophosphorylation sites negatively and positively modulate neu-mediated transformation. Mol. Cell. Biol.
R. Fiddes, P. Janes, S. Sivertsen, R. Sutherland, E. Musgrove, and R. Daly (1998). Inhibition of the MAP kinase cascade blocks heregulin-induced cell cycle progression in T-47D human breast cancer cells. Oncogene
L. Stevenson, K. Ravichandran, and A. Frackelton (1999). Shc dominant negative disrupts cell cycle progression on both GO-G1 and G2-M of ErbB2-positive breast cancer cells. Cell Growth Differ.
A. Tari, M.-C. Hung, K. Li, and G. Lopez-Berestein (1999). Growth inhibition of breast cancer cells by Grb2 downregulation is correlated with inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, cells. Oncogene
M. Holgado-Madruga, D. Emlet, D. Moscatello, A. Godwin, and A. Wong (1996). A Grb2-associated docking protein in EGF-and insulin-receptor signalling. Nature
M. Webster, J. Hutchinson, M. Rauh, S. Muthuswamy, M. Anton, C. Tortorice, R. Cardiff, F. Graham, J. Hassell, and W. Muller (1998). Requirement for both Shc and phosphatidylinositol 3′ kinase signaling pathways in polyomavirus middle T-mediated mammary tumorigenesis. Mol. Cell. Biol.
A. Cheng, T. Saxton, R. Sakai, S. Kulkarni, G. Mbamalu, W. Vogel, C. Tortorice, R. Cardiff, J. Cross, W. Muller, and T. Pawson (1998). Mammalian Grb2 regulates multiple steps in embryonic development and malignant transformation. Cell
T. Goi, M. Shipitsin, Z. Lu, D. Foster, S. Klinz, and L. Feig (2000). An EGF receptor/Ral-GTPase signaling cascade regulates c-Src activity and substrate specificity. EMBO J.
P. Keely, J. Westwick, I. Whitehead, C. Der, and L. Parise (1997). Cdc42 and Rac1 induce integrin-mediated cell motility and invasiveness through PI(3)K. Nature
P. Norgaard, B. Law, H. Joseph, D. Page, Y. Shyr, D. Mays, J. Pietenpol, N. Kohl, A. Oliff, R. Coffey, H. Skovgaard Poulsen, and H. Moses (1999). Treatment with farnesyl-protein transferase inhibitor induces regression of mammary tumors in transforming growth factor (TGF)α and TGFα/neu transgenic mice by inhibition of mitogenic activity and induction of apoptosis. Clin. Cancer Res.
K. Itoh, K. Yoshioka, H. Akedo, M. Uehata, T. Ishizaki, and S. Narumiya (1999). An essential part for Rho-associated kinase in the transcellular invasion of tumor cells. Nature Med.
R. J. Daly (1999). Take your partners, please—signal diversification by the erbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Growth Factors