Strategies for enhancement of natural bay scallop, Argopecten irradians irradians, populations; A case study in the Niantic River estuary, Connecticut, USA
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
We investigated strategies to enhance populations of bay scallops,Argopecten irradians irradians (Lamarck, 1819), in a presumablyrecruitment-limited natural habitat. At present, the Niantic Riverestuary supports only a minor bay scallop population that is harvestedrecreationally. Three enhancement strategies were evaluated; (1)collection and redistribution of natural spatfall, (2) introduction andover-wintering of hatchery-reared stock into natural habitat to providenew spawning stock, and (3) over-wintering of hatchery-reared stock insuspension culture for creation of mobile spawner sanctuaries. Anassessment of natural bay scallop recruitment in the Niantic Riverconducted in 1997 indicated that few spat were found, they were widelydispersed within the river, and peak spawning occurred in late July1997. Direct re-seeding was evaluated as an enhancement measure byplanting hatchery-reared scallops (≌ 38 mm shell height) insmall-scale, 100-m2 plots at different times and densities.Time of planting and the inferred predation intensity were major factorsaffecting survival; whereas, planting density had no significant effect.Approximately 9,000 scallops (35–45 mm shell height), broadcastwithin an eelgrass bed in November 1997, had high over-winter survivaland underwent gametogenesis and spawning during 1998. Of 26,000 bayscallops (≌ 45 mm shell height) over-wintered in suspensionculture from 1998–1999, approximately 60–80%survived, and these scallops spawned in mobile sanctuaries, during thesummer of 1999. There is good potential for using aquacultural methodsfor enhancement of bay scallop populations when natural recruitment ispoor and habitat and environmental conditions are not limiting.
- Ambrose Jr., W.G. and Irlandi, E.A. (1992) Height of attachment on seagrass leads to tradeoffs between growth and survival in the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians. Marine Ecology Progress Series 90, 45–51.
- Arnold, W.S., Marelli, D.C., Bray, C.P. and Harrison, M.M. (1998) Recruitment of bay scallops Argopecten irradians in Floridian Gulf ofMexico waters: scales of coherence. Marine Ecology Progress Series 70, 143–157.
- Barbeau, M.A. and McDowell, J.E. (1998) Improving the production of scallops from bottom culture. World Aquaculture 29(4), 12–15.
- Barbeau,M.A., Scheibling, R.E. and Hatcher, G.B. (1998) Behavioural responses of predatory crabs and sea stars to varying density of juvenile sea scallops. Aquaculture 169, 87–98.
- Barbeau, M.A. and Caswell, H. (1999) A matrix model for short-term dynamics of seed populations of sea scallops. Ecological Applications 9, 266–287.
- Belding, D.L. (1910) A report on the scallop fishery of Massachusetts, including the habits, life history of Pecten irradians, its rate of growth and other facts of economic value. Special Report, Commissioners on Fisheries and Game, Commonwealth of Massachusetts Publication. Wrights and Potter Printing Co. Boston, 150 pp.
- Bologna, P.A.X. and Heck, K.L. (1999) Differential predation and growth rates of bay scallops within seagrass habitat. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 239, 299–314.
- Bricelj,V.M. and Kuenstner, S.H. (1989) Effects of the "brown tide" on the feeding physiology and growth of bay scallops and mussels. In: Novel Phytoplankton Blooms. Causes and Impacts of Recurrent Brown Tides and Other Unusual Blooms. Coastal and Estuarine Studies (eds. E.M. Cosper, V.M. Briceli, and E.J. Carpenter), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 491–509.
- Cliche, G., Vigneau, S. and Giguere, M. (1997) Status of a commercial sea scallop enhancement project in Iles-de-la-Madeleine (Quebec, Canada). Aquaculture International 5, 259–266.
- Cosper, E.M., Dennison, W.C., Carpenter, E.J., Bricelj, V.M., Mitchell, J.G. Kuenstner, S.H. Colflesh, D. and Dewey, M. (1987) Recurrent and persistent brown tide blooms perturb coastal marine ecosystem. Estuaries 10, 284–290.
- Dreyer, W.A. and Castle, W.A. (1941) Occurrence of the bay scallop, Pecten irradians. Ecology 22, 425–427.
- Eckman, J.E. (1987) The role of hydrodynamics in recruitment, growth, and survival of Argopecten irradians (L.) and Anomia simplex (D'Orbigny) within eelgrass meadows. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 106, 165–191.
- Garcia-Esquivel, Z. and Bricelj, V.M. (1993) Ontogenic changes in microhabitat distribution of juvenile bay scallops, Argopecten irradians irradians (L.) in eelgrass beds, and their potential significance to early recruitment. Biological Bulletin 185, 42–55.
- Hunt, H.L. and Scheibling, R.E. (1997) Role of early post-settlement mortality in recruitment of benthic marine invertebrates. Marine Ecology Progress Series 155, 269–301.
- Kassner, J. and Malouf, R.E. (1982) An evaluation of "Spawner Transplants" as a management tool in Long Island's hard clam fishery. Journal of Shellfish Research 2(2), 165–172.
- Kollmeyer, R.C. (1972) A study of the Niantic River estuary, Niantic, Connecticut. Office of Research and Development U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters Washington D.C. Report No. RDCGA 18, 1–78.
- Marshall, N. (1947) An abundance of bay scallops in the absence of eelgrass. Ecology 28, 321–322.
- Marshall, N. (1960) Studies of the Niantic River, Connecticut with special reference to the bay scallop, Aequipecten irradians. Limnology and Oceanography 26, 86–105.
- McHugh, J.L. (1989) Overview of bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) landings. In: Novel Phytoplankton Blooms. Causes and Impacts of Recurrent Brown Tides and other Unusual Blooms. Coastal and Estuarine Studies (eds. E.M. Cosper, V.M. Briceli and E.J. Carpenter), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 485–490.
- Peterson, C.H. and Summerson, H.C. (1992) Basin-scale coherence of population dynamics of an exploited marine invertebrate, the bay scallop: implications of recruitment limitation. Marine Ecology Progress Series 90, 257–272.
- Peterson, C.H., Summerson H.C. and Luettich, Jr., R.A. (1996) Response of bay scallops to spawner transplants: a test of recruitment limitation. Marine Ecology Progress Series 102, 93–107.
- Pohle, D.G., Bricelj, V.M. and Garcia-Esquivel, Z. (1991) The eelgrass canopy: an above bottom refuge from benthic predators for juvenile bay scallops, Argopecten irradians. Marine Ecology Progress Series 74, 47–59.
- Short, F.T. (1988) Eelgrass-Scallop Research in the Niantic River: Final Report to the Waterford-East Lyme Shellfish Commission. Jackson Estuarine Laboratory, University of New Hampshire, Durham NH.
- Short, F.T., Burdick, D.M. and Kaldy III, J.E. (1989) Mesocosm experiments to quantify the effects of eutrophication on eelgrass, Zostera marina. Limnology and Oceanography 40, 740–749.
- Smith, I., Fonseca, M.S., Rivera, J.A. and Rittmaster, K.A. (1988) Habitat value of natural versus recently transplanted eelgrass, Zostera marina, for the bay scallop. Fisheries Bulletin 87, 189–196.
- Streib,M.D., Bricelj,V.M. and Bauer, S.I. (1995) Population biology of the mud crab, Dyspanopeus sayi, an important predator of juvenile bay scallops in Long Island Sound (USA) eelgrass beds. Journal of Shellfish Research 14, 347–357.
- Summerson, H.C. and Peterson, C.H. (1990) Recruitment failure of the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians concentricus, during the first red tide, Ptychodiscus brevis, outbreak recorded in North Carolina. Estuaries 13, 322–331.
- Tettelbach, S.T. (1986) Dynamics of Crustacean Predation on the Northern Bay Scallop, Argopecten irradians irradians. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Connecticut, 229 pp.
- Tettelbach, S.T., Smith, C.F., Kaldy III, J.E., Arroll, T.W. and Denson, M.R. (1990) Burial of transplanted bay scallops Argopecten irradians (Lamarck, 1819) in winter. Journal of Shellfish Research 9, 127–134.
- Tettelbach, S.T. (1991) Seasonal changes in a population of northern bay scallops, Argopecten irradians (Lamarck, 1819). In: An International Compendium of Scallop Biology (eds. S.E. Shumway and P.A. Sandifer),World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LA, pp. 164–175.
- Tettelbach, S.T. and Wenczel, P. (1993) Reseeding efforts and the status of bay scallops Argopecten irradians (Lamark, 1819) populations in New York following the occurrence of "Brown Tide" algal blooms. Journal of Shellfish Research 12, 423–431.
- Thayer, G.W., Kenworthy, W.J. and Fonseca, M.S. (1984) The ecology of eelgrass meadows of the Atlantic coast. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service FWS/OBS-84/02.
- Thayer, G.W. and Stuart, H.H. (1974) The bay scallop makes its bed of eelgrass. Marine Fisheries Review 36(7), 27–30.
- Thomson, J.D. (1992) Scallop enhancement-how, and is it worth the effort? In: Recruitment Processes (ed. D.A. Hancock), A-station Government Printing Service, Canberra, pp. 183–186.
- Wikfors, G.H. and Smolowitz, R.M. (1993) Detrimental effects of a Prorocentrum isolate upon hard clams and bay scallops in laboratory feeding studies. In: Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea (eds. T.J. Smayda and Y. Shimizu), Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., pp. 447–452.
- Strategies for enhancement of natural bay scallop, Argopecten irradians irradians, populations; A case study in the Niantic River estuary, Connecticut, USA
Volume 8, Issue 2-3 , pp 139-158
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- bay scallop (Argopecten irradians)
- stock enhancement
- spawner sanctuary
- eelgrass (Zostera marina)