Endostatin, a potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, inhibits the growth of primary tumors without induction of acquired drug resistance in mice. We report that a soluble recombinant human (rh) Endostatin produced with characteristics of the native Endostatin, effectively inhibited the growth of primary tumors and pulmonary metastases in a dose-dependent manner. We also show that deletion of two of the four zinc ligands of rhEndostatin did not affect this potent tumor inhibiton. The growth of established Lewis lung primary tumors implanted into mice was inhibited (80–90%) upon systemic treatment with 50 mg/kg/12 h of rhEndostatin. Using the B16-BL6 murine experimental pulmonary metastases model, rhEndostatin administered at 1.5 mg/kg/day or 4.5 mg/kg/day beginning 3- or 11-days post tumor cell injection, respectively, resulted in an approximate 80% inhibition of tumor growth. At effective anti-tumor doses of 1.5 and 50 mg/kg, pharmacokinetic modeling in mice showed (a) the protein was 100% bioavailable, (b) the AUC ranged from 16 to 700 ngml/h and (c) the Cmax ranged from 161 to 4582 ng/ml. At the highest dose tested (300 mg/kg), delivered as a single bolus, no drug-related toxicity was observed in a Cynomolgus monkey infused with rhEndostatin. No toxicity was observed even at AUC and Cmax values that were 1.3- to 56-fold higher than those observed in mice with tumors that were potently inhibited. Our production system yields a well characterized, soluble and potent rhEndostatin at quantities sufficient for human use. The preclinical studies described herein are an important first step toward the assessment of Endostatin in the clinic.
Endostatininhibition of angiogenesistumor growth inhibition