Calcium phosphate bone cements for clinical applications. Part II: Precipitate formation during setting reactions

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Calcium phosphate bone cements (CPBC) have been of great interest in medicine and dentistry due to their excellent biocompatibility and bone-repair properties. In this article, a review is presented of the scientific literature concerning precipitate formation during setting reactions of CPBCs. Firstly, the available information has been classified according to the intended final product or calcium phosphate formed during setting reactions. Taking the final product into account, a second classification has been made according to the calcium phosphates present in the original powder mixture. This is the most natural classification procedure because it is based on thermodynamic reasons supported by solubility diagrams for the calcium phosphate salts. By understanding the thermodynamics of calcium phosphate salts in an aqueous solution at room or body temperature it is possible to optimize the manufacturing technology involved in the production of CPBCs. Knowledge of the limitations of this thermodynamic approach opens up new possibilities in the search for CPBCs with better in vitro and in vivo properties for clinical applications. © 1999 Kluwer Academic Publishers