, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 71-75

Intake of specific carotenoids and flavonoids and the risk of gastric cancer in Spain

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Abstract

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between gastric cancer and the intake of specific carotenoids (α- carotene, β-carotene, lutein, and lycopene) and flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and luteolin) using new data on their concentration in foods.

Methods: Case-control study carried out in Spain that included 354 cases of gastric cancer and 354 controls, matched by age, gender, area of residence and hospital. Usual food intake was assessed using a dietary history questionnaire.

Results: In a multivariate model adjusted for several dietary factors, no association was found between intake of any of the studied carotenoids and the risk of gastric cancer. The adjusted OR of gastric cancer for the highest quartile of total flavonoid intake versus the lowest quartile was 0.44 (95 percent confidence interval [CI]=0.25–0.78; p for trend=0.003). Kaempferol intake was found to be protective (OR=0.48; CI=0.26–0.88; p for trend=0.04) comparing the highest versus the lowest quartile of intake. A trend toward lower risk of stomach cancer with higher intake of quercetin was also found.

Conclusions: The results of this study support the hypothesis that the well-established protective effect of fruit and vegetables against gastric cancer could, in part, be due to the presence of flavonoids.